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Risks and Discomforts

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  • You may feel uncomfortable answering some of the survey questions. 

  • You may feel upset if you learn that you have an HPV infection or abnormal Pap smear, though these are things you would learn from your gynecologist as a result of receiving routine gynecologic care, and not as a result of participating in the study.

  • The pelvic examination may be a little uncomfortable, as usual, and you may have some minor bleeding from the brushes used to obtain the Pap smear and HPV specimens.  Scant spotting after a Pap smear and pelvic exam is not unusual.

  • Drawing your blood may cause some soreness and rarely a bruise may develope


There is no direct personal benefit to you from participating in this study.  What we learn from the study may benefit other women as they age through menopause.  We hope that as you participate in this study you will learn more about your cervical health.



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