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Welcome to the Bloomberg School of Public Health


Name of the School   

The first time that the School is referred to in running copy, it should be the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Second reference is the Bloomberg School (the the is not capitalized unless it starts a sentence).

In press releases, on second reference, use the Bloomberg School of Public Health.
In the  School's Magazine, use Bloomberg School on both first and second references.

Names and titles—capitalization

Titles preceding names
Capitalize a title preceding a name if a person is addressed by that title; otherwise do not capitalize.

Dean Sommer
Professor John Baldwin
treasurer William Snow Jr.
associate research professor Jones

Titles used alone or following a name
Do not capitalize titles used alone, following a name, or modified.

Dr. Brody, president of the university, ...
Next semester, epidemiology professor Jonathan Samet ...
The president said ...

Names, initials in

Use periods and spaces between initial letters of someone's name.

W. C. Williams

Native American

Although the AP Stylebook cleaves to the term American Indian, we prefer Native American, as it is more inclusive, more accurate, and avoids reference to the sub-continent of India.

The term Native American can include any indigenous peoples of the Americas (American continents).

We recommend using more specific terms (e.g., Inuit, Apache, Mohican) whenever possible. Some other, broader terms might include

Alaska Natives
Canada Natives
Native Hawaiians
First Nations

New York 

When referring to the city of New York, write "New York," not "New York City."

He chairs the board of the Children's Health Fund in New York.
She is a partner at New York-based law firm Baer Marks & Upham.

No. (for "number")

Use this capitalized abbreviation for number when referring to a position or rank.

No. 1 city in America
No. 3 choice
No. 2 pencil

Nondiscriminatory language

Disability and illness
The term handicapped should be replaced with disabled. Don't write afflicted with or is a victim of; instead write He has muscular dystrophy. Don't write wheelchair-bound or confined to a wheelchair; write instead She uses a wheelchair or walks with crutches. Put the reference to the person first, followed by the description as disabled, so that people are not defined by their disabilities. Thus, people with disabilities or people with diabetes or people with AIDS, rather than the disabled or disabled people or diabetics or AIDS sufferers .

Senior citizens
Do not use the elderly to refer to older people; use instead elderly people or senior citizens (usually those over age 65). Avoid seniors , which may be confused with fourth-year students.

America, developed world
North American
, NOT: American. The developing world, the developed world; NOT the Third World or the First World.

Nonsexist language

See Chair.

He, him, his
Avoid using he, him, and his to refer to people in general. Recast the sentence in the plural, so that they, them, and their can be used; or alternate between he and she in the text.

Genderless alternatives
Avoid constructions that are noticeably awkward. Try to think of genderless alternatives (firefighter, mail carrier) to sexist words (fireman, mailman ).

When a married woman prefers "Mrs."
Note that a married woman’s full name includes her first name, not her husband’s, unless specifically requested (Mrs. Sally Smith; NOT Mrs. Richard Smith).


See Time of day.

Nouns—Plural forms

For acronyms, add s (or es) to form the plural. Do not use apostrophe s (’s).


Exception: When the lack of an apostrophe may cause confusion.Acronyms ending in the letter s take an apostrophe.


Collective nouns
Collective nouns such as committee, faculty, and staff designate a group; if the group is functioning as a unit, treat the noun as singular; if the members of the group are functioning individually, treat the noun as plural.

The committee, at its last meeting, decided to endorse the proposal.
The committee put their signatures on the document.

Hyphenated nouns
Add s to form the plural.


Plurals of nouns should not contain apostrophes.

Keep up with the Joneses
Thousands of apples

Keep up with the Jones's
Thousand's of apples

To indicate possession of a plural form:

I envy the Joneses' well-behaved children.
The hungry thousands' need for food ...

Special plural forms
See Plural forms of particular words.

Numbers, plural form
To form the plurals of figures, add s; no apostrophe is needed.

1980s, 1920s

Numbers used as nouns (either spelled out or as numerals)
Add s (or es) to form the plural.

W-2s, 747s
at sixes and sevens

Single letters
One exception is plurals of single letters, which may require an apostrophe to avoid misinterpretation.

She earned all A’s.
x’s and y’s

Number One (“the number one . . . in the world” )

Use No. for number when referring to a position or rank.

New York is the No. 1 city in America.
That university was his No. 3 choice.


When to spell out numbers
In general, spell out zero through nine and use numerals for 10 and above (unless a number begins a sentence).

Exception: To avoid inconsistency, do not spell out numerals zero through nine if they are included in a range or series where at least one number is two or more digits.

On Monday, Wednesday, and Thursday, he bought 6, 9, and 12 books, respectively.

When to use commas within large numbers
For numbers larger than 999 and smaller than 1 million, use a comma to mark off the thousands.

1,001 nights, 20,000 students

When to use numerals
Use Arabic numbers for ages, percentages, money, units of measure, very large numbers (i.e., a million or larger), and in headlines.

7 years old
a 9-year-old child
7.5 billion
$5, $15.80, $150 million
8 percent (spell out percent).
Police Say 6 Stores Robbed

BUT: Do not begin a sentence with a numeral.

Ninety-nine degrees is a hot day in my book.

A hyphen is not necessary in a compound adjective that includes arabic numerals to represent dollars.

an $18 million building

Plural forms
To form the plurals of figures, add s; no apostrophe is needed.

1980s, 1920s

Ranges of numbers
The en dash (–), and not the hyphen, is used as a substitute for the word to in ranges of numbers and years.

There were 100–125 students in the program.

The chapter is on pages 65–67.
8 a.m.–5 p.m.
7–10 p.m.

Spell out centuries.

twentieth century

Council on Education for Public Health

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