Decade of Vaccines Economics (DoVE) Phase II
DoVE Phase II includes a systematic review of the literature on the cost-effectiveness and economic benefits of vaccines in low- and middle-income countries conducted by IVAC was published in the December 17, 2012 issue of Vaccine. The review identified 108 relevant articles from 51 countries spanning 23 vaccines. Among the 44 articles that reported costs per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted, vaccines cost less than or equal to $100 per DALY averted in 23 articles (52%) and less than $1,000 per DALY averted in 38 articles (86%). Less than one-quarter of the articles examined broad level economic benefits of vaccines, such as greater future wage-earning capacity, and cost savings from averting disease outbreaks. There were also few studies on the long-term and societal economic benefits, such as morbidity-related productivity gains, averting catastrophic health expenditures, GDP growth, and economic implications of demographic changes resulting from vaccination. Overall, the review shows that vaccination in low- and middle-income countries brings important economic benefits, but highlights areas where additional research is needed.