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INSPIRE: Indian Network of Streptococcus pneumoniae and PCV Impact Research


INSPIRE is a multicenter study design spanning four years (2018-2022) that evaluates the impact of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) rollout in India. India contributes 28% of the global burden of pneumonia-related under-5 child deaths, and the vaccine rollout is expected to have a major impact on child morbidity and mortality. The study will assess vaccine impact by using four approaches: (1) by identifying changes between the pre-PCV and post-PCV periods in the proportion of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine-type serotypes; (2) change in the proportion of vaccine-type-colonized pneumonia hospital admissions among children 1-35 months old; (3) the change in pneumococcal serotype ecology through nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization community studies as a measure of vaccine effectiveness against transmission; (4) by understanding cost of illness of pneumonia and pneumococcal disease and return-on-investment analyses of PCV introduction in India. The study has 12 sites in India that includes public and private healthcare institutions, and community centers. Findings from these studies can help policy makers support, optimize, and advocate for the expansion of the PCV immunization program in India and work towards reducing child morbidity and mortality.


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