The goal of the South African TB-AIDS Training (SATBAT) program is to expand the ability of South African investigators to conduct state-of-the-art operational, health services and clinical research relevant to the twin epidemics of TB/AIDS. The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS (PEPFAR) and the South African Ministry of Health have provided funds for infrastructure improvement including new clinics and implementation of information technologies. However, training of health professionals in operational research so that they can mitigate the TB epidemic remains an unmet need. SATBAT is designed to fill this void. Specifically, the program prepares researchers to be able to successfully carry out the large number of clinical, operational and health services research projects that are already underway or planned in SA, as well as develop their own new proposals for studies that will be successful in obtaining competitive scientific funding. The program leverages well-established training resources in both countries to prepare tomorrow’s academic and public health leaders of South Africa, and is developing and enhancing local capacity for training by supporting and augmenting existing individuals and institutions engaged in research training. Over the course of this initiative, the majority of training will take place in South Africa, and an increasing proportion of the total resources will be committed to in-country training. The program is a collaborative undertaking of the University of the Witwatersrand (SA), University of North Carolina (US) and Johns Hopkins University (US).