In this study, Phase III of a community-level randomized controlled study, 32 communities in Africa (Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa) and 14 communities in Thailand will be randomized to either a community-based HIV voluntary counseling and testing (CBVCT) intervention or a clinic-based standard voluntary counseling and testing program (SCVT). The CBVCT intervention incorporates three components: increasing the availability of community setting VCT; recruiting early testers as community outreach workers; providing post-test support groups. It is the study’s hypothesis that increasing the proportion of people in communities who know their HIV status will change community norms and that changing community norms will reduce the risk of HIV infection for all members of the community, regardless of whether or not they have participated in the intervention. The efficacy of the CBVCT intervention will be measured by a comparison of rates of recent HIV infection (recent HIV incidence) among randomly selected 18 to 32 year old participants living in CBCVT and SCVT communities. These individuals will be evaluated at study baseline and post-intervention. Reports of HIV risk behavior, rates of HIV testing, social norms regarding HIV testing, frequency of discussions about HIV, frequency of disclosure of HIV status, amount of HIV stigma and HIV related social harm will also be compared between these participants. Study investigators from The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health include Dr. David Celentano, principal investigator, Dr. Chris Beyrer, co-principal investigator and Dr. Surinda Kawichai, Project Field Director. Drs. Suwat Chariyalertsak and Surasing Visrutaratana are Principal Investigators from Chiang Mai University in Thailand and Drs. Apinun Aramrattana, Namtip Srirak, and Cholticha Ruangyuttikarn are all Co- Principal Investigators from Chiang Mai University in Thailand. This study began in September of 2003 and runs through the end of June, 2008.