Over the past 15 years we have developed a research network in Peru that combines state-of-the-art research with high-quality training. This collaboration between UPCH, A.B.PRISMA, international trainers and JHU mentors people as they progress from trainee to independent scientist and in turn themselves become trainers. Over the past 10 years, this NIH funded network has trained 94 Peruvians, 37 of whom have been funded to study at US universities. Importantly, all of the MSc and PhDs remain based in Peru. This strengthening of Peruvian research expertise has also been achieved by training 158 visitors from other countries, three of who have consequently moved to Peru, where they now lead research and training. Over 10 years this has resulted in over 150 trainee publications directly related to this research. Proposed training principles: This grant would allow our training network to further expand, building upon its internationally recognized strengths whilst increasing accessibility for candidates from disadvantaged regions and introducing a curriculum of core subjects taught in regular seminars. Specifically, we would continue to maximize trainee growth through: . One-to-one mentorship from local, visiting and returning experts . Achievement-driven stepwise progression for those with greatest ability . Respect for equality of opportunity irrespective of gender and ethnicity. Proposed training structure: This network will continue to be broad-based (numbers are for 5 years): 1. Mentorship in Peru will remain the foundation of this program. Bright candidates will be selected for one-to-one mentorship from a trainer within the apprenticeship setting of a research project (approximately 100). 2. Peru formal training will constitute laboratory, rotations and one-week long training seminars (approximately 250). 3. Peru MSc training for the most able candidates selected by their mentor and trainers (10). 4. USA diploma (10), MPH (1) and PhD (2) training at JHU will be provided for the highest achievers who are judged to have potential to become independent scientists and trainers. This grant will facilitate the growth and enhancement of this effective and egalitarian training network, allowing physicians and scientists to both benefit from and contribute to the sustainable development of infectious disease research in Peru and other countries.