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Ellen J. MacKenzie, PhD

  • Dean, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
  • Bloomberg Distinguished Professor
  • Professor

Departmental Affiliations

Center & Institute Affiliations

Contact Information

615 N. Wolfe Street
Room W1041
Baltimore, Maryland 21205


About Dean Ellen J. MacKenzie
Major Extremity Trauma Research Consortium

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PhD, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 1979
ScM, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 1975
BA, Rutgers University, 1972


Dr. MacKenzie's research focuses on the impact of health services and policies on the short-and long-term consequences of traumatic injury. She has contributed to the development and evaluation of tools for measuring both the severity and outcome of injury which have been used to evaluate the organization, financing and performance of trauma systems and rehabilitation services. Her research has advanced the knowledge of the economic and social impact of injuries and our understanding of how personal and environmental factors influence recovery and return to work.

Selected research accomplishments include:

• A comprehensive effort in the late 1980s to estimate the direct and indirect costs of injury. The Cost of Injury book defined the economic burden of injury and served for many years as the principal resource on the subject for researchers, practitioners and policymakers.

• Widely quoted in support of efforts at regionalization at both the state and national levels, the National Study on the Costs and Outcomes of Trauma Care (NSCOT) showed that one’s risk of dying from a major trauma was reduced by 25% if treated in a trauma center vs. non-trauma center.

• The NIH-funded Lower Extremity Assessment Project (LEAP) showed few differences in outcome for individuals with major limb trauma undergoing limb salvage or amputation. Instead, it underscored the importance of high self-efficacy, good social support, and low baseline measures of depression, pain and anxiety in predicting good outcome.

• In collaborations with colleagues at the Amputee Coalition of America, a self–management program for amputees, Promoting Amputee Life Skills (PALS), was developed and evaluated. Working off the success of PALS, an online self-management program, NextSteps, was designed for trauma survivors (

• With funding from the Department of Defense the Major Extremity Trauma Research Consortium (METRC) ( was established. The overall goal of METRC is to produce the evidence needed to establish treatment guidelines for the optimal care of the wounded warrior and improve the clinical and quality of life outcomes of both service members and civilians who sustain major extremity trauma. The Consortium is currently involved in 20 multicenter trials addressing a range of different topics, including the prevention and treatment of acute and chronic infections, the efficacy of multimodal, pharmacologic perioperative management of pain, and the evaluation of a new custom energy-storing ankle foot orthosis for survivors of major foot and ankle trauma.

Honors and Awards

Phi Beta Kappa

Golden Apple for Teaching, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health

Delta Omega Public Health Honorary

General Motors Trauma Research Award, Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma

A.J. Mirkin Service Award, Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine

Charter Fellow, Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine

Honorary Fellow, American Association for the Surgery of Trauma

Distinguished Career Award, American Public Health Association (Injury Control and Emergency Health Services Section)

Distinguished Achievement Award, American Trauma Society

Award of Merit, Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine

Ann Doner Vaughan Kappa Delta Award, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

Nursing Leadership Award, Society of Trauma Nurses

President, American Trauma Society

Diversity Recognition Award, The Johns Hopkins University

Lifetime Achievement Award in Trauma Resuscitation Science from the American Heart Association

Named by CDC as one of 20 leaders and visionaries who have had a transformative effect on the field of violence and injury prevention in the past 20 years.

Elected to the National Academy of Medicine (NAM), one of the highest honors in the fields of health and medicine.

  • Injury Control
  • Outcomes Research
  • Disability and Rehabilitation
  • Health Services Research
  • Orthopedic Outcomes Research
  • Extremity War Injuries

Selected Publications

  • Bosse MJ, MacKenzie EJ, Kellam JF, et al.  Reconstruction or Amputation of Lower Limb Threatening Injuries: An Analysis of Two-Year Outcomes in Level I Trauma Centers.   New England Journal of Medicine, 2002; 347(24): 1924-1931.
  • MacKenzie EJ, Hoyt DB, Sacra JC, Jurkovich GJ, Carlini AR, Teitelbaum SD, Teter H. A National Inventory of Hospital Trauma Centers. JAMA. 2003; 289: 1515-1522.
  • MacKenzie EJ, Rivara FP, Jurkovich GJ, Nathens AN et al. A National Evaluation of the Effect of Trauma Center Care on Mortality. New England Journal of Medicine, 2006; Jan 26; 354(4):366-78.
  • MacKenzie E, Weir S, Rivara F, Jurkovich G, Nathens A, Wang W, Scharfstein D, Salkever D, The Value of Trauma Center Care.  J Trauma, 2010; 69(1): 1-10.
  • Wegener ST, MacKenzie EJ, Ephraim P, Ehde D, Williams R.  Self-Management Improves Outcomes in Persons with Limb Loss.  Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009; Mar; 90(3):373-80.
  • Evaluation of the Trauma Survivors Network
  • Fogarty International Collaborative Trauma and Injury Research Training (ICTIRT)
  • Improving Activity and Participation After Limb Loss: PALS-Plus
  • Improving Trauma Outcomes: A Patient-Centered Approach
  • International Collaborative Trauma and Injury Research
  • Major Extremity Trauma Research Consortium I
  • Major Extremity Trauma Research Consortium II
  • National Trauma Information Exchange Program
  • Organization, Financing, and Delivery of EMS in the United States
  • Outcomes Following Major Limb Trauma Sustained in the Military
  • Patient Response to an Integrated Orthotic and Rehabilitation Initiative for Traumatic Injuries in the Military (PIRORITI-MTF)
  • Self-Managing the Consequences of Major Limb Trauma
  • The Major Extremity Trauma and Rehabilitation Consortium
  • Validation of PROMIS for Orthopaedic Trauma Research