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W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology


BacteriologyWilliam H. Welch, the founding dean of Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and the School of Hygiene and Public Health, and recognized as the founder of scientific medicine in America ("the Dean of American Medicine"), also founded MMI, formerly the Department of Bacteriology.

Among his numerous contributions to medicine and public health, Welch in 1892 discovered the gas gangrene-causing bacterium—named after him as Welch Bacillus, subsequently called Clostridium perfringens or C. welchii. John Hanks, another of the early members of the Department, is famed for his Hanks Balanced Salt Solution and for his pioneering work on the leprosy bacillus (Mycobacterium leprae). The Department’s interest in mycobacteria is now focused on the resurgence of tuberculosis (TB) and particularly the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) as a major public health problem.

Research Groups

Dr. Ying Zhang works on the problem of drug-resistant and persistent Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other chronic and persistent bacterial infections including latent infections. The laboratory seeks to identify drug resistance mechanisms and mechanisms responsible for the persistence of Mycobacteria despite appropriate therapy and host defense against bacterial infections. The laboratory is interested in  translating research findings to the clinic by developing improved diagnostics, vaccines and immunotherapeutics, as well as new drugs for TB including those effective against persisters.