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Search here for published research about health and health conditions in Baltimore by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Public Health Detailing to Increase Routine HIV Screening in Baltimore, Maryland: Satisfaction, Feasibility, and Effectiveness

This study looked at the acceptability and usefulness of a detailing project to increase HIV screening in Baltimore, since it has a high transmission rate.
Topic: HIV

Improving Follow-up and Reducing Barriers for Eye Screenings in Communities: The SToP Glaucoma Study

This study focused on African Americans at or over 50 years of age, and looked at eye check-ups for glaucoma, cataract, refractive error and other conditions, towards understanding characteristics aiding follow-up visits.
Topic: Eye check-up; African-American

A mixed methods assessment of the barriers and readiness for meeting the SNAP depth of stock requirements in Baltimore’s small food stores

This mixed methods study done in 17 corner stores of low-income food desert areas of Baltimore is looked at proposed Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) requirement about variety of food items that need to be stocked. It studied store owner awareness and perceived challenges and suggested solutions. It found that 14 out of 17 store-owners were unaware of the proposed changes and only 2 out of 17 met proposed variety of stock. Lack of customer demand for ‘healthier’ foods and concern about spoilage of left-over food were among challenges expressed.
Topic: SNAP; Food; Corner-store

Novel Methods for Environmental Assessment of Pedestrian Injury: Creation and Validation of the Inventory for Pedestrian Safety Infrastructure

Towards identifying street-level prevention strategies for pedestrian injuries in urban Baltimore, an Inventory for Pedestrian Safety Infrastructure (IPSI) was developed and studied.
Topic: Pedestrian; Road Safety

Factors Associated with Home Meal Preparation and Fast-Food Sources Use among Low-Income Urban African American Adults

This mixed methods study done in 17 corner stores of low-income food desert areas of Baltimore is looked at proposed Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) requirement about variety of food items that need to be stocked. It studied store owner awareness and perceived challenges and suggested solutions. It found that 14 out of 17 store-owners were unaware of the proposed changes and only 2 out of 17 met proposed variety of stock. Lack of customer demand for ‘healthier’ foods and concern about spoilage of left-over food were among challenges expressed.
Topic: SNAP; Food; Corner-store

The effect of community socioeconomic status on sepsis-attributable mortality

This study from Baltimore looked at socioeconomic status and mortality from sepsis.
Topic: Socioeconomic status; Mortality; Sepsis

How the science of injury prevention contributes to advancing home fire safety in the USA: successes and opportunities

This paper looks at various interventions that have worked for preventing house fires. It also addresses the need to overcome disparities in implementing fire safety in homes.
Topic: Fire Safety

Enhanced Tobacco Control Initiative at Johns Hopkins Health System: Employee Fairness Perception

This study done at Johns Hopkins Health System based on employee health insurance discount for non-smokers looked at the ‘fairness’ logistics of an optional self-testing for tobacco use.
Topic: Tobacco Cessation; Employee

Protocol: mixed-methods study to evaluate implementation, enforcement, and outcomes of U.S. state laws intended to curb high-risk opioid prescribing

This paper looks at various opioid prescription related laws from US states.
Topic: Opioids

Temperament Moderators of Prospective Associations Between Community Violence Exposure and Urban African American Adolescents' Aggressive Behavior

This study looks at relationship between exposure to community violence and aggressive behavior in African-American children in grades 9 and 10 in Baltimore.
Topic: Community Violence; African-American

Acceptability and feasibility of a Peer Mentor program to train young Black men who have sex with men to promote HIV and STI home-testing to their social network members

The study from Baltimore looked at a peer-mentorship program in raising awareness and acceptability of home-based testing for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among African American men who had sex with men.
Topic: HIV; African-American

Pharmacy-level Barriers to Implementing Expedited Partner Therapy in Baltimore, Maryland

There are systemic challenges from the pharmacy side, such as limited availability and limited pharmacist awareness, in implementing Chlamydia trachomatis expedited partner therapy. The study looked at such challenges in Baltimore regions with high rates of the disease.
Topic: Chlamydia; Partner Therapy; Pharmacy

HIV seroconversion among Baltimore City residents tested at a mobile van programme

This study from Baltimore looked at HIV seroconversion rates among participants of mobile van testing program. It also identified some high-risk attributes.
Topic: HIV; Seroconversion

Increases in the Rate of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Among Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men-Findings From the Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance Network 2010-2015

Towards better understanding the epidemiology of gonorrhea, were studied in Baltimore and some other cities in the US.
Topic: Gonorrhea; Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM)

Increasing Patient Portal Usage: Preliminary Outcomes From the MyChart Genius Project

This study looks at use of dedicated staff (MyChart Geniuses) to increase adolescent and young adult uptake of the MyChart patient portal among patients attending an urban clinic in Baltimore. This online and downloadable application is used for patient-provider health communication.
Topic: Adolescents; Patient Portal

Text Messaging Support for Urban Adolescents and Young Adults Using Injectable Contraception: Outcomes of the DepoText Pilot Trial

This study looked at the use of text messaging reminders to increase attendance at clinic follow-up visits among adolescents using Depo-Provera. The text method was feasible, highly acceptable, and showed good preliminary effectiveness for enhancing clinic attendance among the study population.
Topic: Adolescents; Text Message; Contraception

Understanding Adolescent Nonresponsiveness to Text Messages: Lessons from the DepoText Trial

This study looked at the reasons adolescents enrolled in a Depo-Provera text message reminder study intervention do not respond to all text messages. Intervention participants with less than 100% response rate were interviewed via telephone. The most common reason cited was being away from their mobile phone (e.g. in class or at work), followed by loss of mobile phone service due to unpaid bills. Youth noted that having a mobile phone was a need and not a want. They overwhelmingly were satisfied with the messages and reported increased connection to the clinic because of the messages.
Topic: Adolescents; Text Messages; Contraception

Why Didn’t You Text Me? Poststudy Trends From the DepoText Trial

This study from Baltimore looked at sustained effects from exposure to a text messaging reminder intervention for adolescents and young adult women after the program's end.  Young women in the study were followed for 20 months after the end of the DepoText Study Trial. Participants in the intervention arm were significantly more likely to still be using DepoProvera or a more effective contraceptive method than participants in the control group at longitudinal follow-up.
Topic: Adolescents; Contraception​; Text Messaging

Recruitment of Minority Adolescents and Young Adults into Randomised Clinical Trials: Testing the Design of the Technology Enhanced Community Health Nursing (TECH-N) Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Trial

Urban young women 13-25 years in urban Baltimore diagnosed with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID; a complicated sexually transmitted infection) participated in a trial to determine if a combination of community health nursing with text messaging support improves self-care. Preliminary data from the trial demonstrated that adolescents with PID can effectively be recruited and retained to participate in sexual and reproductive health trials and community base delivery of sexual health services is safe and acceptable to patients and families in this community.
Topic: Adolescents; Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, Community Health Nursing, Text Messaging

Care-seeking Behavior after Notification among Young Women with Recurrent Sexually Transmitted Infections after Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

This analysis evaluated the care seeking behavior of young women from Baltimore with a history of pelvic inflammatory disease enrolled in a trial of a community-based nursing intervention with text-messaging support who had recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) at 1- and 3-month screenings.  While all patients were successfully notified of their test results and offered free treatment in a local health clinic, many patients with positive STI results did not seek care after notification leaving them vulnerable to the complications of untreated STIs.
Topic: Adolescents; Recurrent Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), Treatment Adherence

Incidence of Discontinuation of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception among Adolescent and Young Adult Women Served by an Urban Primary Care Clinic

This study examined clinical data from young women enrolled in the long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) program within an urban adolescent /young adult clinic to determine how often LARCs were discontinued and the reasons for discontinuation. Most young women retained the LARC method (contraceptive implant or intrauterine device) with 1/5 discontinued. The primary reasons for discontinuation of the implant and intrauterine device were bleeding and expulsion, respectively.
Topic: Adolescents; Contraception​; LARC

The Society for Vascular Surgery Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) classification system predicts wound healing but not major amputation in patients with diabetic foot ulcers treated in a multidisciplinary setting

This study from Johns Hopkins hospital’s Multidisciplinary Diabetic Foot & Wound Clinic looked at amputations in diabetic patients based on various stages of wounds.
Topic: diabetic foot; amputation

Facilitators and Barriers to Implementing Church-Based Adolescent Sexual Health Programs in Baltimore City

This study asked faith leaders as well as youth and adult congregants what was important to consider when offering sexual health programs in churches for adolescents.
Topic: adolescence; sexual behavior

Social network perspective on alcohol consumption among African American women: a longitudinal analysis

The role of social networks among African Americans in their consumption of alcohol was studied in Baltimore, with hopes of using such networks to address consumption.
Topic: alcohol; African-American

Effect of alcohol consumption on all-cause and liver-related mortality among HIV-infected individuals

This study from Baltimore looked at alcohol use and mortality among HIV patients.
Topic: alcohol; HIV

Age of first drunkenness and risks for all-cause mortality: A 27-year follow-up from the epidemiologic catchment area study

This study from four US cities including Baltimore, found that if the age of first drunkenness is early, there are increased chances of death.
Topic: alcoholism; adolescence

Intersections between polyvictimisation and mental health among adolescents in five urban disadvantaged settings: the role of gender

This study done in multiple urban locations including Baltimore looked at gender differences of relationship between violence and mental health.
Topic: violence; mental health

Sociodemographic and access-related correlates of health-care utilization among African American injection drug users: The BESURE study

This study found that insurance status, past incarceration, and financial stability influenced health care utilization among African-American injection drug users in Baltimore.
Topic: injection drug use; African-American

Understanding Hearing Loss and Barriers to Hearing Health Care Among Korean American Older Adults

This study looked at how hearing loss impacted older Korean Americans in Maryland. It looked at impact, patient perceptions, coping mechanisms and barriers to adequate care.
Topic: hearing loss; Korean Americans

Hearing care intervention for persons with dementia: A pilot study

The Memory-HEARS was done in an out-patient setting of a Baltimore hospital. This intervention aimed at improving patient quality of life by reducing behavioral disturbances in patients with dementia who may have hearing loss.
Topic: hearing loss; dementia

Does Race/Ethnicity or Socioeconomic Status Influence Patient Satisfaction in Pediatric Surgical Care?

This study done at children’s clinics at a Baltimore hospital looked at whether race/ ethnicity or socio-economic status affected patient satisfaction. The study did not find disparities in patient satisfaction.
Topic: patient satisfaction; race

Evaluation of a strategy for enrolling the families of critically ill patients in research using limited human resources

This study conducted in a Baltimore city hospital explored the logistics of enrolling the families of critically ill patients in a clinical research study.  Patients who were white, lived in a high-income zip code, were on life support, or who died were more likely to have a family member at their bedside available for recruitment.  Day of the week and time of day were not associated with whether a family member was present in the hospital.
Topic: ICU; caregiver; family; patient advocacy; clinical research

Tailored, Interactive Text Messages for Enhancing Weight Loss Among African American Adults: The TRIMM Randomized Controlled Trial

Participants from African-American churches in Baltimore were recruited for a controlled trial to promote weight loss among obese adults by sending individualized text messages which educated and encouraged changes in their diet and physical activity. This intervention was more successful than standard care.
Topic: African-American; obesity

Implementing Trauma-Informed Partner Violence Assessment in Family Planning Clinics

This study was done in family planning clinics in Baltimore to understand how trauma-informed care, intimate partner violence assessment and universal education on violence can help women at risk for abuse.
Topic: intimate partner violence; trauma-informed care

Have You Talked about It: Advance Care Planning among African Americans Living with HIV in Baltimore

The AFFIRM study looked at advance care planning experiences among HIV-positive African Americans living in Baltimore.
Topic: HIV; African Americans

'Yeah, I've grown; I can't go out anymore': differences in perceived risks between girls and boys entering adolescence

Global Early Adolescent Study, of which Baltimore was one of the urban sites, found exaggerated gender differences in independence between males and females as they entered adolescent biological changes.
Topic: Adolescence; Gender Differences

Motivators, Barriers, and Facilitators to Weight Loss and Behavior Change Among African American Adults in Baltimore City: A Qualitative Analysis

Focus groups conducted among African American adults in Baltimore who were obese, looked at various challenges towards long-term weight loss.
Topic: African-American; Obesity

Social Desirability Bias and Prevalence of Sexual HIV Risk Behaviors Among People Who Use Drugs in Baltimore, Maryland: Implications for Identifying Individuals Prone to Underreporting Sexual Risk Behaviors

In this study of those with HIV and who use drugs, a higher desirability bias was related to under-reporting of high-risk sexual behaviors.
Topic: Sexual Behavior

The Impact of Preexposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: An Individual-Based Model

Wider coverage of PrEP among men who have sex with men, along with individual-level adherence to treatment, was noted to have a high population-level impact on new HIV transmissions.
Topic: PrEP; Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM)

Predictors of HIV-related risk perception and PrEP acceptability among young adult female family planning patients

Female patients of family planning clinics in Baltimore were asked about HIV PrEP knowledge and acceptability to inform woman-controlled HIV prevention methods in this high prevalence setting.
Topic: PrEP; Family Planning; Disparites; Sex Work

Loss of Peripheral Sensory Function Explains Much of the Increase in Postural Sway in Healthy Older Adults

This was the study of a sample from Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, to understand balance upon standing in the elderly that are otherwise healthy. It found that decreased sensory function with aging at the legs or in the inner ear, can contribute to this.
Topic: Balance; Elderly

Predictors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and internal dose in inner city Baltimore children

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can trigger asthma attacks in children. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide (1-OHPG) was used measure the corresponding internal dose of exposure from smoking or organic matter combustion.
Topic: Asthma; Urban Children

The Association of Vitamin D Deficiency and Incident Frailty in Older Women: The Role of Cardiometabolic Diseases

The relationship between lack of Vitamin D and frailty was studied among Women’s Health and Aging Study II participants, in Baltimore. The study found that low blood vitamin D is associated with increased incidence of frailty.  In older women with diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and/or abnormal lipid levels, the study found a weaker association between low vitamin D and the development of frailty.
Topic: Frailty; Vitamin D; Cardiometabolic Diseases

Investigating the Occupational Challenges of Corner Store Workers Operating in Baltimore City Food Deserts

The study done in Baltimore city looked at challenges faced by workers in small retail outlets in this urban area.
Topic: Food

Psychosocial Characteristics and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Female Exotic Dancers Who Have Sex with Women in Baltimore: A Brief Report                 

Female dancers from Baltimore exotic dance clubs were recruited for this study. The underlying vulnerabilities of those who have sex with women were studied, to understand how they differ from those who have sex with men only.
Topic: Sexual Behavior

Structural risk and limits on agency among exotic dancers: HIV risk practices in the exotic dance club

This study looked at HIV risk factors based on built environment and club policies at Baltimore’s exotic dance clubs.
Topic: HIV

The Development of an HIV Risk Environment Scale of Exotic Dance Clubs

A risk environment score was studied among exotic dancers in Baltimore to understand HIV risk.
Topic: HIV

Challenges and Opportunities to Engaging Emergency Medical Service Providers in Substance Use Research: A Qualitative Study

This study done among Baltimore City Fire Department staff looked at how they can be involved in limiting drug users from overusing them by giving motivational messages to get treatment.
Topic: EMS; Drug Users

Compensatory Saccades Are Associated With Physical Performance in Older Adults: Data From the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

This study done with Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging data looked at whether a certain test can be used as a measure of vestibular loss in older adults.
Topic: Aging

“Creative maladjustment” in the West Baltimore uprising

The author focuses on the recent West Baltimore uprising following the death of Freddie Gray, by using psychoanalytic theory to understand a non-pathological depiction of the uprising towards advancing racial justice.
Topic: Race

The multifunctionality of urban farming: perceived benefits for neighbourhood improvement

A qualitative case study done in urban Baltimore, studied the less understood values of urban farming. Results showed multiple benefits to the neighborhood studies, including access to fresh local food and local employment opportunities.
Topic: Urban Farming; Neighborhood

Gathering Baltimore's bounty: Characterizing behaviors, motivations, and barriers of foragers in an urban ecosystem

This study is a survey of those who foraged (plant or fungal matter) for food or medicine in Baltimore city or Baltimore county. It found that there is an active urban foraging community in Baltimore, which may have policy implications for developing urban ecosystems.
Topic: Urban Ecosystem; Foraging

B'More Fit for Healthy Babies: Using Trauma-Informed Care Policies to Improve Maternal Health in Baltimore City

The study looked at societal, environmental and policy issues and gender inequalities (women bearing the brunt of child rearing) that affect weight loss among women in Baltimore city. The study helped to influence local policy in developing initiatives based on an understanding of how trauma influences women’s behaviors, as part of a wider program for healthy babies.
Topic: Gender-based Violence; Maternal Health

The feasibility of an air purifier and secondhand smoke education intervention in homes of inner city pregnant women and infants living with a smoker

This single arm clinical trial was done in women who were pregnant or had an infant, to understand the effectiveness of a second-hand smoking education-air purifier combination. There was at least one smoker in the household. The results showed this to be a feasible intervention based on participant interest.
Topic: Second-hand Smoking; Pregnancy; Infant

Unique pulmonary immunotoxicological effects of urban PM are not recapitulated solely by carbon black, diesel exhaust or coal fly ash

The study investigated if carbon black, diesel exhaust particle or coal fly ash can be used as surrogate markers for particulate matter (PM), as is seen in urban environments. While they were found not to, the actual particulate matter reaction differed between PM from 2 big cities, New York and Baltimore, with that from Baltimore eliciting a stronger immune reaction.
Topic: Particulate Matter; Urban Environment

Neighborhood and Parental Influences on Diet and Physical Activity Behaviors in Young Low-Income Pediatric Patients

This study looked at diet and physical activity behaviors influenced by primary caregivers of African-American and Hispanic children 2 to 5 year-olds in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore, MD.
Topic: Physical Activity; Neighborhood; Children

Predictors of buprenorphine treatment success of opioid dependence in two Baltimore City grassroots recovery programs

The study looked at opioid-dependence treatment success based on sociodemographic variables. Those with unstable housing were found to have less chances of success than those with independent housing, even after controlling for sociodemographic factors such as race/ethnicity, gender, and age.
Topic: Opioid-dependence Treatment; Buprenorphine

The relationship between social desirability bias and self-reports of health, substance use, and social network factors among urban substance users in Baltimore, Maryland

In opiate and cocaine users, there is under-reporting of socially undesirable attributes if the study methodology uses self-reporting. This study highlights the need for alternate methodologies for such studies.
Topic: Substance Abuse; Report

Low-Income Urban Mothers' Experiences with the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program

The study looked at Baltimore Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) user mothers’ experiences with the program. It showed the challenges in applying for and maintaining benefits through the program.
Topic: SNAP

Factors Associated With Missed Appointments at an Academic Pain Treatment Center: A Prospective Year-Long Longitudinal Study

This longitudinal study looked at factors leading to ‘no-shows’ in an inner-city pain clinic in Baltimore. Higher rates were seen among young, single, minority, Medicare/ Medicaid recipients. Higher no-show rates were also found among those with previous pain provider(s), low back-pain or headache as primary diagnosis, or during a day of rain or snow.
Topic: Pain

HIV-Related Stigma Among Spanish-speaking Latinos in an Emerging Immigrant Receiving City

This study was done in Baltimore city to study the reluctance among Latinos to do HIV testing due fear of stigma if they are found positive. It found that men were more likely to hold multiple beliefs of stigma and were more hesitant to undergo testing.
Topic: HIV; Latino

A brief intervention for preparing ICU families to be proxies: A phase I study

This study from Baltimore, MD, looked at an intervention for preparing family to make difficult decisions for critically ill, hospitalized family members and friends.
Topic: Family; Proxy; Legal; Advocacy; Shared Decision-making; Patient Rights

Reproductive coercion among women living with HIV: an unexplored risk factor for negative sexual and mental health outcomes

A self-reported survey from Baltimorean women living with HIV look at reproductive coercion that may lead to unintended pregnancies, as the pregnancy can be high-risk for mother and baby.
Topic: HIV; Pregnancy

High hepatitis C cure rates among black and nonblack human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in an urban center

This study looked at treatment of hepatitis C in those already infected with HIV among black and non-black patients in Baltimore. The treatment response did not differ by race, mental health or drugs use history.
Topic: HIV; Hep C

The Baltimore HEARS Pilot Study: An Affordable, Accessible, Community-Delivered Hearing Care Intervention

This study from Baltimore looked at the development and initial testing of a hearing care program, the Hearing Equality through Accessible Research & Solutions (HEARS) intervention, to reduce disparities in hearing care among older adults.
Topic: Hearing Loss; Older Adults

Exploration of Gender Norms and Socialization Among Early Adolescents: The Use of Qualitative Methods for the Global Early Adolescent Study

The Global Early Adolescent Study (GEAS) was a multicentric study done in different countries, with one of the sites being Baltimore. It looked at methods used to understand sexuality in early adolescents across different sites.
Topic: Adolescence; Sexuality

Marching to a Different Drummer: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Young Adolescents Who Challenge Gender Norms

In the multi-city multinational Global Early Adolescent Study, of which Baltimore was one city, the investigators looked at the consequences of challenging gender norms. While girls were accepted in taking on ‘masculine’ behaviors, the opposite was not so acceptable.
Topic: Gender Norms; Adolescence

Acceptability of microbicidal vaginal rings and oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among female sex workers in a high-prevalence US city

Female sex workers’ attitudes and knowledge about daily use oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and monthly use vaginal microbicidal rings were studied in Baltimore.
Topic: HIV Prevention; Female Sex Worker (FSW)

Relationships between Vacant Homes and Food Swamps: A Longitudinal Study of an Urban Food Environment

‘Food-swamp index’ was evaluated in Baltimore to understand the mechanisms for the seemingly higher premature mortality rate from cancer and diabetes in areas with a high proportion of vacant homes.
Topic: Food; Neighborhood

Client and Partner Violence Among Urban Female Exotic Dancers and Intentions for Seeking Support and Justice

This study among new female exotic dancers in Baltimore indicated the need to look at system changes to address the violence faced by this group at high risk for the same.
Topic: Partner Violence; Exotic Dancers

Positive Expectations Regarding Aging Linked to More New Friends in Later Life

This study based on the Baltimore Experience Corps Trial, looked at social life and aging. Those with positive expectations had more support and perceptions of support.
Topic: Aging; Social Support

Electronic cigarette use behaviors and motivations among smokers and non-smokers

This study among adult Baltimorean never smokers, former-smokers and current smokers look at the reasons for e-cigarette use. Never smoker e-cigarette users are an interesting group to do further research upon.
Topic: E-cigarette; Smokers

The association of e-cigarette use with exposure to nickel and chromium: A preliminary study of non-invasive biomarkers

Urine, saliva and breath condensate were collected from e-cigarette users from Baltimore in this study. Results showed that higher aerosol concentrations of nickel and chromium were correlated with higher metal internal dose (biomarkers) in the users’ bodies.
Topic: E-cigarette; Nickel; Chromium

Associations of depression status and hopelessness with blood pressure: a 24-year follow-up study

Data from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (ECA) were analyzed to study the relationship between depression and elevated blood pressure. Hopelessness was found to have a positive relationship with high systolic blood pressure.
Topic: Mental Health; Blood Pressure

The Impact of a Multi-Level Multi-Component Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention on Healthy Food Availability, Sales, and Purchasing in a Low-Income Urban Area

The B'more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) was an intervention in low-income areas of Baltimore city considered to be ‘food deserts’. It was applied at multiple levels, using multiple components, with the goal of preventing obesity among children in these areas. As a result, there was increased stocking of healthy products in corner stores, more children purchased the promoted healthier food items (but not their adult caregivers). There was no difference in post-interventional net sales.
Topic: Food; Obesity

Differences in Coping Among African American Women With Breast Cancer and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

Patients taking chemotherapy were studied in a small, pilot study in a Baltimorean hospital (Johns Hopkins) for triple-negative versus non-triple-negative breast cancer coping differences.
Topic: Breast Cancer; African-American Women

Improving Outcomes After Hospitalization: A Prospective Observational Multicenter Evaluation of Care Coordination Strategies for Reducing 30-Day Readmissions to Maryland Hospitals

Relationship between transition from hospital to home and 30-day readmission was studied in two Baltimorean hospitals. The care coordination interventions were associated with lower readmissions.
Topic: 30-day Readmission

APOE Genotype and Nonrespiratory Sleep Parameters in Cognitively Intact Older Adults

Apo E genotype which increases Alzheimer’s Disease risk was studied in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.
Topic: Sleep; Aging

Perceived barriers to bicycling in an urban U.S. environment

Baltimoreans aged 18 to 75 were surveyed in assessing perceived barriers to cycling. Differences by sex were also examined.
Topic: Bicycling; Road Safety

Physical and Sexual Violence Predictors

Gender-based violence history was collected from participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Data revealed that urban women living with HIV and their uninfected counterparts face sustained gender-based violence risk, and past experiences of violence create sustained risk.
Topic: Gender-based violence; HIV/AIDS

Food insecurity, overweight and obesity among low-income African-American families in Baltimore City: Associations with food-related perceptions

Cross-sectional survey data found that obesity and food insecurity are major problems in the low-income, predominantly African-American neighborhoods studied.
Topic: Nutrition; Obesity

Household, psychosocial, and individual-level factors associated with fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake among low-income urban African American youth

An analysis of individual characteristic, psychosocial, and household factors found that both youth and household factors were associated with youth fruits and vegetables and fiber intake, underscoring the need for a multi-level approach to increasing youths' diet quality.
Topic: Nutrition; Childhood Obesity; Adolescent Health

Perceived Social Support From Friends and Parents for Eating Behavior and Diet Quality Among Low-Income, Urban, Minority Youth

This study examines relationships between social support and quality of dietary intake among adolescents
Topic: Nutrition; Adolescent Health

Multi-Level, Multi-Component Approaches to Community Based Interventions for Health Living - A Three Case Comparison

Analyzes three case studies of Multi-Level, Multi-Component intervention programs for community-based public health nutrition changes, including the B'More Healthy Communities for Kids.
Topic: Nutrition; Adolescent Health

Postpartum Weight Retention Risk Factors and Relationship to Obesity at One Year

Explores risk factors for postpartum weight retention one year after delivery in predominantly low income women using data within the Community Child Health Network, a national five-site study that includes Baltimore. The study concludes that postpartum weight retention is a significant contributor to the risk for obesity, and discusses behaviors that may lower the risk.
Topic: Maternal Health; Obesity

Promotion of Service Integration Among Home Visiting Programs and Community Coalitions Working with Low-Income, Pregnant, and Parenting Women

This study assessed service integration promoted by home visitors and community coalitions in Baltimore's Comprehensive Family Support Strategy. The authors argue that home visiting practitioners should consider including coalitions as part of their program models in order to better link clients to appropriate community resources.
Topic: Maternal health

Communication Between Key Stakeholders within a Medical Home: A Qualitative Study

This study determined perceived benefits, detriments, and barriers to communication between pediatric providers and home visitors.
Topic: Child health

Police Encounters Among Needle Exchange Clients in Baltimore: Drug Law Enforcement as a Structural Determinant of Health

This study pilots a monitoring mechanism to document police encounters around programs targeting people who inject drugs. Findings indicate that being younger, being male, and making frequent visits to needle exchange program sites were associated with reported police stops.
Topic: Drug Users; Harm Reduction; Law Enforcement

Attitudes towards Power in Relationships and Sexual Concurrency within Heterosexual Youth Partnerships in Baltimore, MD

Examines the association between attitudes about gender roles and reportedly having more than one sexual partner among Baltimore youth.
Topic: Sexually Transmitted Infections; Adolescent Health

Exotic Dance in Baltimore: From Entry to STI/HIV Risk

Describes the factors that influenced women's entry into exotic dance and explores the relation of these forces to their subsequent STI/HIV risk trajectory.
Topic: Sex Work; Sexually Transmitted Infections

Structural vulnerabilities to HIV/STI risk among female exotic dancers in Baltimore, Maryland

An assessment of the relationship between vulnerability and risk behavior indicated that exotic dancers with a high vulnerability score were more likely to report sex exchange and multiple sex partnerships.
Topic: Sex Work; Sexually Transmitted Infections

Risk Managers' Descriptions of Programs to Support Second Victims after Adverse Events

Investigated the presence, features, and perceived efficacy of support programs for clinicians involved in adverse events.
Topic: Physicians

Identifying Changes in Scores on the EORTC-QLQ-C30 Representing a Change in Patients' Supportive Care Needs

This secondary analysis examined how changes on a health-related quality-of-life measure represents important changes in supportive care needs in newly-diagnosed cancer patients.
Topic: Medical; Patient Care

Engaging City Youth in Urban Agriculture: Examining a Farm-Based High School Internship Program through the Lens of Self-Determination Theory

A year-long case study examined the experiences of eleventh- and twelfth-grade students participating in a youth internship program at a farm in Baltimore. Findings indicate specific strategies that urban agriculture programs can use to more effectively engage youth.
Topic: Urban Agriculture; Youth

HIV testing among youth in a high-risk city: prevalence, predictors and gender differences

Describes the prevalence of past-year HIV testing, and evaluates associations between HIV testing and individual- and partner-level factors by gender among heterosexually experienced adolescents in Baltimore.
Topic: Adolescent Health; Sexual Health

"What makes you think you have special privileges because you're a police officer?" A qualitative exploration of police's role in the risk environment of female sex workers

Female sex workers in Baltimore discuss experiences of police verbal harassment, sexual exploitation, extortion, and a lack of police responsiveness to 911 calls in emergencies. This study underscores the need for targeting police in reducing sex workers' HIV and other risks.
Topic: Sex Work; Law Enforcement; Harm Reduction

Impact of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: An Environmental Intervention to Improve Diet Among African American Youth

Assessed the impact of a youth-targeted multilevel nutrition intervention aimed to increase availability and selection of healthful foods. The intervention was associated with reductions in youth BMI.
Topic: Nutrition; Obesity; Adolescent Health

B'more healthy: retail rewards - design of a multi-level communications and pricing intervention to improve the food environment in Baltimore City

Describes a performance-based pricing and communications incentive in small food stores as a strategy to encourage local wholesalers and storeowners to share responsibility in creating a healthier food supply.
Topic: Nutrition; Obesity

Characteristics of Youth Food Preparation in Low-Income, African-American Homes: Associations with Healthy Eating Index Scores

This study explores food preparation behaviors of adolescents and analyzes a potential association to diet quality.
Topic: Nutrition; Adolescent Health

Healthy versus Unhealthy Suppliers in Food Desert Neighborhoods: A Network Analysis of Corner Stores' Food Supplier Networks

Using network analysis, the authors determine how different corner store and food supplier characteristics are correlated. They argue that suppliers fall into two categories: Those providing primarily healthy foods and those providing primarily unhealthy foods.
Topic: Nutrition; Food Deserts

Low-income African-American adults share weight status, food-related psychosocial factors and behaviours with their children

This study examined the weight status, psychosocial characteristics, and food-related behaviors of low-income African-American children and found they are positively associated with that of their adult caregivers. These findings may help inform obesity treatment or prevention programs and interventions aimed at parents and families.
Topic: Obesity; Child Health; Family Health

Increasing access to fresh produce by pairing urban farms with corner stores: a case study in a low-income urban setting

This pre-post evaluation found that the pairing of urban farms and corner stores in Baltimore is feasible and could be a new model to increase access to fruits and vegetables among low-income urban neighborhoods.
Topic: Nutrition

Combining Ground-Truthing and Technology to Improve Accuracy in Establishing Children's Food Purchasing Behaviors

Introduces a technology-based method for collecting information on food source usage among children in Baltimore City.
Topic: Nutrition; Technology

Incorporating Systems Science Principles into the Development of Obesity Prevention Interventions: Principles, Benefits, and Challenges

Outlines a set of principles for developing community-level models for obesity control, and highlights the benefits and challenges involved in the process.
Topic: Obesity

Intravenous Iron Exposure and Mortality in Patients on Hemodialysis

Examined the associations between short- and long-term iron exposure on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in dialysis patients.
Topic: Dialysis; Medical

When Using Patient-Reported Outcomes in Clinical Practice, the Measure Matters: A Randomized Controlled Trial

The authors advise careful selection of the patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures to be used in clinical practice to inform individual patient management and provide evidence of which PROs are best suited for clinical use.
Topic: Medical; Patient Care

Comparison of Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Patient Satisfaction Scores for Specialty Hospitals and General Medical Hospitals: Confounding Effect of Survey Response Rate

Compares satisfaction scores of specialty hospitals and general medical hospitals and finds that specialty hospitals have a significantly higher overall patient satisfaction score. However, the authors warn that much of the difference disappears when adjusted for survey response rate.
Topic: Medical; Patient Care

An instrumental variable approach finds no associated harm or benefit from early dialysis initiation in the United States

This retrospective cohort study uses an instrumental variable approach to examine the association between dialysis initiation and mortality.
Topic: Dialysis; Medical

Predialysis Systolic BP Variability and Outcomes in Hemodialysis Patients

Examines the association of BP variability with clinical outcomes in hemodialysis patients.
Topic: Dialysis; Medical

Predialysis Health, Dialysis Timing, and Outcomes among Older United States Adults

Examines the association of predialysis health with timing of dialysis initiation in older adult patients and contrasts morbidity and mortality outcomes among patients with early versus later initiation.
Topic: Dialysis; Medical

Respondent-driven sampling for an adolescent health study in vulnerable urban settings: a multi-country study

Describes the methodology of a respondent-driven sampling survey to recruit male and female adolescents living in economically distressed urban settings and illustrates challenges and necessary adaptations for use.
Topic: Adolescent Health

Prevalence and Determinants of Adolescent Pregnancy in Urban Disadvantaged Settings Across Five Cities

Explores the sociodemographic, behavioral, and environmental-level factors associated with adolescent pregnancy across give urban disadvantaged settings and discovers substantial variability by location due to differences in sexual experience and environmental context.
Topic: Adolescent Health; Reproductive Health

Prevalence and Health Impact of Intimate Partner Violence and Non-partner Sexual Violence Among Female Adolescents Aged 15-19 Years in Vulnerable Urban Environments: A Multi-Country Study

Female adolescents from urban environments around the world participated in this cross-sectional survey to identify the prevalence of past-year physical and sexual intimate partner violence, and lifetime and past-year non-partner sexual violence. Findings affirm the negative health influence of gender based violence even in disadvantaged urban settings that present a range of competing health threats.
Topic: Intimate Partner Violence

Relation between the Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program cycle and dietary quality in low-income African Americans in Baltimore, Maryland

Examines SNAP (food stamps) recipients' nutrient intake during the days and weeks after benefit disbursement.
Topic: Nutrition

B'More healthy communities for kids: design of a multi-level intervention for obesity prevention for low-income African American children

Discusses a multi-level, multi-component intervention to increase access to, demand for, and consumption of healthier foods by low-income African American children. Emphasizes both the built environment (food sources) and the social environment (families and peers).
Topic: Nutrition; Child Health

The Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways Model: A Multi-Level Framework on Maternal, Paternal, and Child Health Disparities Derived by Community-Based Participatory Research

Five sites, including Baltimore, comprise the Community Child Health Network (CCHN). This article introduces the Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways Model, developed by the CCHN, to discuss improved family outcomes.
Topic: Child Health; Family Health

Residency schedule, burnout and patient care among first-year residents

A cross-sectional survey of first-year medicine residents assessed residency schedule characteristics to evaluate which elements were associated with resident burnout and fatigue and whether resident burnout and fatigue were associated with lower perceived quality of patient care.
Topic: Medical; Physicians

In the Wake of the 2003 and 2011 Duty Hours Regulations, How Do Internal Medicine Interns Spend Their Time?

In light of changes to common program requirements for graduate medical students, this study aimed to determine how internal medicine interns spend their time in the hospital, comparing the years 2011 and 2003.
Topic: Physicians; Medical

On higher ground: ethical reasoning and its relationship with error disclosure

Surveys of house officers in internal medicine at Johns Hopkins Hospital found an association between ethical reasoning scores and acknowledging medical errors, providing detailed explanations of the error, and taking personal responsibility. The authors suggest that ethical training may help to improve disclosure of medical errors.
Topic: Medical; Physicians

Building Connections Between Officers and Baltimore City Youth: Key Components of a Police-Youth Teambuilding Program

Analysis of a police-youth program indicates that the program successfully brings officers and youth together in a situation in which they have equal status, share common goals, must cooperate to succeed, and have the support of authority figures. Outcomes include reduced stereotyping of the opposite group and a desire for future positive interactions.
Topic: Youth; Law Enforcement

Violence against women in sex work and HIV risk implications differ qualitatively by perpetrator

In-depth interviews and brief surveys used to describe the nature of abuse against women in sex work, and its STI/HIV implications, across perpetrators. Findings affirm the need to address physical and sexual violence as a social determinant of health for women in sex work.
Topic: Intimate Partner Violence; Sex Work

How You Screen is as Important as Whether You Screen: A Qualitative Analysis of Violence Screening Practices in Reproductive Health Clinics

Qualitative, in-depth interviews with healthcare providers in urban reproductive health clinics in Baltimore City were used to understand screening practices for intimate partner violence. Findings demonstrated substantial variation in screening practices, despite existence of a screening tool.
Topic: Intimate Partner Violence

Effects of Baltimore's Safe Streets Program on Gun Violence: A Replication of Chicago's CeaseFire Program

Compares changes in number of homicides and nonfatal shooting incidents in Baltimore neighborhoods that implemented an evidence-based public health approach to preventing gun violence. Program-related reductions in homicides appear to be linked with conflict mediations conducted by program outreach workers.
Topic: Gun Violence

Process Evaluation of Healthy Bodies, Healthy Souls: a church-based health intervention program in Baltimore City

Details a three-part process evaluation adopted to evaluated implementation success of a church-based health intervention program. Success was measured by reach, dose delivered, and fidelity of interactive sessions.
Topic: Nutrition

Development and implementation of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: a youth-targeted intervention to improve the urban food environment

A process evaluation of a youth-targeted environmental intervention aimed to increase the availability and consumption of healthy foods.
Topic: Nutrition; Adolescent Health

Environmental Factors That Impact the Eating Behaviors of Low-income African American Adolescents in Baltimore City

Qualitative research using in-depth interviews, focus groups, and direct observation found six thematic categories of food-related habits of low-income, African American, urban adolescents.
Topic: Nutrition

"This is Our Sanctuary": Perceptions of Safety among Exotic Dancers in Baltimore, Maryland

This qualitative study explores the nature of the safety climate of exotic dance clubs in Baltimore. The authors assert that understanding the contextual factors that influence how dancers prioritize risk in their work settings is crucial for creating programs to reduce risk.
Topic: Sex Work; Harm Reduction

Risky Food Safety Behaviors Are Associated with Higher BMI and Lower Healthy Eating Self-Efficacy and Intentions among African American Churchgoers in Baltimore

Investigates the relationship of health indicators and psychosocial factors with food safety behaviors and identifies groups who are more likely to practice risky food safety behaviors which can lead to foodborne illness.
Topic: Nutrition; Food Safety

Healthier Home Food Preparation Methods and Youth and Caregiver Psychosocial Factors Are Associated with Lower BMI in African American Youth

Investigated the relationship between home food preparation and BMI of African American adolescents and their caregivers. The authors argue that family meals are a promising adolescent obesity prevention strategy, but it is important to target both frequency and healthfulness of meals prepared at home.
Topic: Nutrition; Obesity; Adolescent Health

More than a dance: The production of sexual health risk in the exotic dance clubs in Baltimore, USA

This study examines the nature of the physical, social, and economic risk environments in promoting drug and sexual risk behaviors, and illuminates characteristics of the environment that should be targeted for interventions.
Topic: Sex Work

The Geography of Heterosexual Partnerships in Baltimore City Adults

This study builds on an older study that found STD clinic patients in Baltimore were found to seek partners within close proximity, and finds the same results in a non-STD clinic population. The authors argue a continuing need for neighborhood approaches to intervention programs in urban areas.
Topic: Sexually Transmitted Infections

Korean American Storeowners' Perceived Barriers and Motivators for Implementing a Corner Store-Based Program

Uses in-depth interviews with Korean American corner store owners to examine the motivating factors for participation in a year-long corner store based program, barriers to program implementation, perceived effectiveness of intervention materials, and perceptions about the program. Found that the level of support and active participation of storeowners can greatly influence the success of corner store-based nutrition interventions.
Topic: Nutrition

Access to food source and food source use are associated with healthy and unhealthy food-purchasing behaviours among low-income African-American adults in Baltimore City

Explores food-purchasing patterns in low-income areas in the context of food source use and access. The authors found that corner stores are easily accessible and frequently used food sources, and they argued that interventions to increase the availability and promotion of healthy foods in corner stores are needed.
Topic: Nutrition

Proximity to vacant buildings in associated with increased fire risk in Baltimore, Maryland, homes

Empirically measures the association between property vacancy and fire risk at the individual household level. The authors argue that measurement of this risk can motivate property owners, policy makers, and insurers to invest in risk reduction measures that include building maintenance and trash removal.
Topic: Injury Prevention

Risks associated with crack cocaine smoking among exotic dancers in Baltimore MD

A cross-sectional study to examine the prevalence and correlates of crack cocaine smoking among a sample of exotic dancers finds high levels of drug use and sexual risk behaviors as well as a number of risks behaviors associated with crack cocaine smoking. The authors argue a need for targeted interventions.
Topic: Sex Work; Drug Users

Parent Perspectives of Health Related Quality of Life for Adolescents With Bladder Exstrophy-Epispadias as Measured by the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form 50

Studies parent-reported health related quality of life for adolescents with bladder exstrophy-epispadias.
Topic: Adolescent Health

Food Insecurity Is Associated With Food-Related Psychosocial Factors and Behaviors Among Low-Income African American Adults in Baltimore City

Discusses the relationship between food insecurity and knowledge, self-efficacy, intentions, healthy and unhealthy food getting, and preparation, and argues that efforts to improve the nutritional health of the food insecure population should focus on psychosocial factors and food-related behaviors.
Topic: Nutrition

Process Evaluation of Baltimore Healthy Stores: A Pilot Health Intervention Program With Supermarkets and Corner Stores in Baltimore City

A feasibility study of an environmental intervention with the goal to increase availability of health food options and promote them at point of purchase in low-income urban settings. Results indicate that small food store-based intervention programs are feasible to implement and are a viable means of increasing healthy food availability and a good location for point-of-purchase promotions.
Topic: Nutrition

An Urban Food Store Intervention Positively Affects Food-Related Psychosocial Variables and Food Behaviors

This publication is an impact evaluation of an intervention trial in nine food stores that included an environmental component to increase stocks of more nutritious foods and point-of-purchase promotions including signage for healthy choices and interactive nutrition education sessions.
Topic: Nutrition

Healthy food purchasing among African American youth: associations with child gender, adult caregiver characteristics and the home food environment

Examines how factors related to the home food environment and individual characteristics are associated with healthy food purchasing among low-income African American adolescents.
Topic: Nutrition

Utilization patterns and correlates of retention among clients of the needle exchange program in Baltimore, Maryland

Patterns of retention in the Baltimore Needle Exchange Program from 1994 to 2006 were calculated, and characteristics of low retention were identified to include young age, being married, having an injection drug use history of less than 20 years, and living farther away from the program site.
Topic: Drug Users; Harm Reduction

Evaluation of the Staying Alive programme: Training injection drug users to properly administer naloxone and save lives

The purpose of this study was to evaluate a Baltimore program which trained drug users to prevent and respond to opiate overdose using techniques including mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and administration of naloxone. Results provide additional evidence to support the effectiveness of overdose prevention training programs that include skills building for drug users to administer naloxone.
Topic: Drug Users; Harm Reduction

Disclosing Medical Errors to Patients: It's not What You Say, It's What They Hear

This study determined that in the event of injury by medical care, patients will probably respond more favorably to physicians who apologize and accept responsibility for medical errors than those who do not apologize or who give ambiguous responses.
Topic: Medical Error; Physicians

Neighborhood Effects on Birthweight: An Exploration of Psychosocial and Behavioral Pathways in Baltimore, 1995-1996

Examined the impact of neighborhood environment on birthweight and found that neighborhood factors may influence birthweight by shaping maternal behavioral risks. Thus, the authors argue, neighborhood level interventions should be considered to address multiple maternal and infant health risks.
Topic: Birth Outcomes

A corner store intervention in a low-income urban community is associated with increased availability and sales of some healthy foods

An evaluation of a corner store-based nutrition intervention trial in Baltimore City demonstrates that increases in stocking and promotion of healthy foods can result in increased sales, and interventions in small corner stores may be a feasible means of improving the availability of healthy foods in a low-income urban community.
Topic: Nutrition; Food Desert

Assessment of dietary intake in an inner-city African American population and development of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to highlight foods and nutrients for a nutritional invention

Characterizes the diets of low-income inner-city African Americans in order to develop a population-specific questionnaire that can be used for a nutritional intervention program aimed at reducing the risks of chronic disease. The results highlighted specific foods and nutrients that would be targeted in the nutritional intervention.
Topic: Nutrition

"The life they save may be mine": Diffusion of overdose prevention information from a city sponsored programme

This qualitative study examines diffusion of information and innovation among participants in Staying Alive, an overdose prevention and naloxone distribution program in Baltimore. The study demonstrates injection drug users' interest in and ability to diffuse overdose prevention information and response skills to the injection drug use community.
Topic: Drug Users; Harm Reduction

Illicit Drug Use and Adverse Birth Outcomes: Is It Drugs or Context?

Examined the degree to which adverse birth outcomes associated with use of marijuana, cocaine, and opiates are due to the drugs versus surrounding factors. Found that no drug was significantly related to low birth weight, and argues that prevention efforts to improve newborn health must also address the surrounding context in which drug use frequently occurs.
Topic: Birth Outcomes; Drug Users

Understanding the Food Environment in a Low-Income Urban Setting: Implications for Food Store Interventions

The authors argue that corner stores are an important venue for nutrition intervention, and they use a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to develop a food store-based interventions for low-income African Americans in Baltimore.
Topic: Nutrition

Human Papillomavirus Seroprevalence Among Young Male and Female Drug Users

Found that HPV seroprevalence was high among young drug users and significantly higher among females than males, supporting previous findings.
Topic: Drug Users; Sexually Transmitted Infections

Choices for Healthy Outcomes In Caring for End Stage Renal Disease

This study places emphasis on the perspective of dialysis patients in order to provide information and tools to guide physicians and providers in selecting optimal dialysis practices for their patients with end stage renal disease.
Dialysis; Renal Disease

Trends in low birth weight infants and changes in Baltimore's childbearing population, 1972-77

Examines effects of changes in the characteristics of the childbearing population on the trends in low birth weight rates in Baltimore between 1972 and 1977.
Topic: Birth Outcomes

Functional Status of Persons with HIV Infection in an Ambulatory Setting

Reviews baseline clinical and demographic data on patients with HIV infection presenting for care between December 1988 and May 1991 and describes their functional status.
Topic: HIV/AIDS

Patient's view of dialysis care: Development of a taxonomy and rating of importance of different aspects of care

Characterizes dialysis care from the patients' perspective and ranks broad aspects of care using transcripts from patient focus groups.
Topic: Dialysis; Renal Disease

Effects of Physical Activity on Preterm Birth

A cohort study of low income women investigating the effect of physical activity on the risk of preterm birth.
Topic: Birth Outcomes

Drug users' involvement in the drug economy: implications for harm reduction and HIV prevention programs

Explores individual and social characteristics associated with cocaine and heroin users' involvement in the drug economy in Baltimore. Of the sample, 44% held at least one role in the drug economy.
Topic: Drug Users

Social influences on the transition to injection drug use among young heroin sniffers: a qualitative analysis

This qualitative study explores the transition of young drug users' from heroin sniffing to injecting and found a range of influencing factors including families, friends, sexual partners, expense of sniffing compared to perceived cost of injecting, and the endemic nature of injection in local neighborhoods.
Topic: Drug Users; Harm Reduction

Poor Validity of Self-Reported Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Vaccination Status among Young Drug Users

This study found that more than half of the young drug using survey participants claiming to be vaccinated from hepatitis B virus were actually susceptible to HBV. The authors argue clinicians should adopt a "Don't Ask, Vaccinate" vaccination policy for young drug users.
Topic: Drug Users; Hepatitis B; Harm Reduction

A Programmable Prompting Device Improves Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Subjects with Memory Impairment

Measures the effect of a memory-prompting device on adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected subjects.
Topic: HIV/AIDS

Circumstances surrounding the first injection experience and their association with future syringe sharing behaviors in young urban injection drug users

The authors found strong evidence that risky drug using behaviors can be established as early as the first injection experience and argue the need for early harm reduction prevention interventions such as educating non-injectors of the harms associated with unsafe injection practices.
Topic: Drug Users; Harm Reduction

Herpes simplex virus 2 and syphilis among young drug users in Baltimore, Maryland

This study revealed a particularly high seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 and syphilis among a cohort of young drug users, especially females.
Topic: Drug Users; Sexually Transmitted Infections

Prevalence and Correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis infections, and Bacterial Vaginosis Among a Cohort of Young Injection Drug Users in Baltimore, Maryland

Studied sexually transmitted infection prevalence and correlates among young injection drug users, and found that despite high sexual risk, prevalence of this cohort was similar to that of the general population.
Topic: Drug Users; Sexually Transmitted Infections

Prospective Evaluation of Community-Acquired Acute-Phase Hepatitis C Virus Infection

This study aimed to characterize acute-phase hepatitis C virus infections in injection drug users, and found a need for long-term follow-up to ascertain whether there is a viral persistence. Additionally, results underscored the importance of nucleic acid screening of blood donations to prevent hepatitis C virus transmission.
Topic: Drug Users; Hepatitis C

The evaluation of the JEWEL project: An innovative economic enhancement and HIV prevention intervention study targeting drug using women involved in prostitution

Evaluates an economic empowerment and HIV prevention intervention targeting illicit drug-using women who were involved in prostitution in Baltimore. In comparing self-reported risk behaviors, the researchers found significant reductions in receiving drugs or money for sex, the median number of sex trade partners per month, daily drug use, amount of money spent on drugs, and daily crack use.
Topic: Sex Work; Drug Users; Harm Reduction

Release from Jail: Moment of Crisis or Window of Opportunity for Female Detainees

The Window Study investigated factors associated with the perceived availability of stable housing upon release of female prisoners from detention and suggests the importance of pre-release planning and continuity of care for female detainees, particularly for those who have engaged in sex work.
Topic: Sex Work; Drug Users

Sexual and Drug Risk Behaviors Among Women Who Have Sex With Women

This study compared risk behaviors of female drug users who had reported how recently they had sex with women, and found that more recent sexual experiences is correlated with a higher rate of drug and sexual risk behaviors compared to women who had never had sex with women.
Topic: Drug Users; Sex Work

Measuring conflict management, emotional self-efficacy, and problem solving confidence in an evaluation of outdoor programs for inner-city youth in Baltimore, Maryland

This study describes a process for generating outcomes measurement instruments for youth participants in Baltimore City Outward Bound programs. The study measured changes in conflict management, emotional self-efficacy, and problem solving confidence in order to better understand the salient elements of outdoor education programs, the outcomes these generate, and best practices for outdoor programs to promote optimal benefits for participants.
Topic: Emotional Health

Development and implementation of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: a youth-targeted intervention to improve the urban food environment

This study evaluates a youth-targeted environmental intervention (Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones) that aimed to increase the availability of healthy foods and promote these foods through interactive activities in low-income Baltimore City. The study found that recreation centers appear to be a promising location to interact with low-income youth and reinforce exposure to messages.
Topic: Healthy Eating

System dynamics-based evaluation of interventions to promote appropriate waste disposal behaviors in low-income urban areas: A Baltimore case study

This case study of low-income urban neighborhoods in Baltimore demonstrates the advantages of using a system dynamics model of municipal solid waste management to quantify the impacts of interventions on residential waste related behavior. The authors argue that this model can help improve policy making by identifying packages of interventions and field testing those few rather than pilot testing all combinations.
Topic: Litter / Waste Management

Community-Academic Partnership to Investigate Low Birth Weight Deliveries and Improve Maternal and Infant Outcomes at a Baltimore City Hospital

This case control study evaluates characteristics associated with low birth weight deliveries and identifies collaborative approaches with obstetricians and community services to improve birth outcomes.
Topic: Birth Outcomes / Infant Health

Influences on tobacco use among urban Hispanic young adults in Baltimore: findings from a qualitative study

This study used focus groups to explore the social and environmental influences and norms that encourage or discourage tobacco use among Hispanic young adults in Baltimore. The results provide guidance for the development of appropriate tobacco-related policy interventions and prevention strategies for Hispanic youth. 
Topic: Tobacco Use

Changes in Attitudes toward Guns and Shootings following Implementation of the Baltimore Safe Streets Intervention

This study measures perceived norms and viewpoints of male youth regarding gun violence pre-implementation and 1-year post-implementation of the Safe Streets intervention. The results indicate greater improvement of the attitudes toward violence in the intervention community compared to the control community and offer promising insights into future community violence prevention efforts.
Topic: Gun Violence

Mobilizing for policy: using community-based participatory research to impose minimum packaging requirements on small cigars

This paper describes a community-academic-practice partnership’s efforts to decrease small cigar use in youth adults in Baltimore through legislative strategies.
Topic: Tobacco Use

“Creative maladjustment” in the West Baltimore uprising

The author focuses on the recent West Baltimore uprising following the death of Freddie Gray, by using psychoanalytic theory to understand a non-pathological depiction of the uprising towards advancing racial justice.
Topic: Race

The multifunctionality of urban farming: perceived benefits for neighbourhood improvement

A qualitative case study done in urban Baltimore, studied the less understood values of urban farming. Results showed multiple benefits to the neighborhood studies, including access to fresh local food and local employment opportunities.
Topic: Urban Farming; Neighborhood

Gathering Baltimore's bounty: Characterizing behaviors, motivations, and barriers of foragers in an urban ecosystem

This study is a survey of those who foraged (plant or fungal matter) for food or medicine in Baltimore city or Baltimore county. It found that there is an active urban foraging community in Baltimore, which may have policy implications for developing urban ecosystems.
Topic: Urban Ecosystem; Foraging

B'More Fit for Healthy Babies: Using Trauma-Informed Care Policies to Improve Maternal Health in Baltimore City

The study looked at societal, environmental and policy issues and gender inequalities (women bearing the brunt of child rearing) that affect weight loss among women in Baltimore city. The study helped to influence local policy in developing initiatives based on an understanding of how trauma influences women’s behaviors, as part of a wider program for healthy babies.
Topic: Gender-based Violence; Maternal Health

The feasibility of an air purifier and secondhand smoke education intervention in homes of inner city pregnant women and infants living with a smoker

This single arm clinical trial was done in women who were pregnant or had an infant, to understand the effectiveness of a second-hand smoking education-air purifier combination. There was at least one smoker in the household. The results showed this to be a feasible intervention based on participant interest.
Topic: Second-hand Smoking; Pregnancy; Infant

Unique pulmonary immunotoxicological effects of urban PM are not recapitulated solely by carbon black, diesel exhaust or coal fly ash

The study investigated if carbon black, diesel exhaust particle or coal fly ash can be used as surrogate markers for particulate matter (PM), as is seen in urban environments. While they were found not to, the actual particulate matter reaction differed between PM from 2 big cities, New York and Baltimore, with that from Baltimore eliciting a stronger immune reaction.
Topic: Particulate Matter; Urban Environment

Neighborhood and Parental Influences on Diet and Physical Activity Behaviors in Young Low-Income Pediatric Patients

This study looked at diet and physical activity behaviors influenced by primary caregivers of African-American and Hispanic children 2 to 5 year-olds in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore, MD.
Topic: Physical Activity; Neighborhood; Children

Predictors of buprenorphine treatment success of opioid dependence in two Baltimore City grassroots recovery programs

The study looked at opioid-dependence treatment success based on sociodemographic variables. Those with unstable housing were found to have less chances of success than those with independent housing, even after controlling for sociodemographic factors such as race/ethnicity, gender, and age.
Topic: Opioid-dependence Treatment; Buprenorphine

The relationship between social desirability bias and self-reports of health, substance use, and social network factors among urban substance users in Baltimore, Maryland

In opiate and cocaine users, there is under-reporting of socially undesirable attributes if the study methodology uses self-reporting. This study highlights the need for alternate methodologies for such studies.
Topic: Substance Abuse; Report

Low-Income Urban Mothers' Experiences with the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program

The study looked at Baltimore Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) user mothers’ experiences with the program. It showed the challenges in applying for and maintaining benefits through the program.
Topic: SNAP

Factors Associated With Missed Appointments at an Academic Pain Treatment Center: A Prospective Year-Long Longitudinal Study

This longitudinal study looked at factors leading to ‘no-shows’ in an inner-city pain clinic in Baltimore. Higher rates were seen among young, single, minority, Medicare/ Medicaid recipients. Higher no-show rates were also found among those with previous pain provider(s), low back-pain or headache as primary diagnosis, or during a day of rain or snow.
Topic: Pain

HIV-Related Stigma Among Spanish-speaking Latinos in an Emerging Immigrant Receiving City

This study was done in Baltimore city to study the reluctance among Latinos to do HIV testing due fear of stigma if they are found positive. It found that men were more likely to hold multiple beliefs of stigma and were more hesitant to undergo testing.
Topic: HIV; Latino

A brief intervention for preparing ICU families to be proxies: A phase I study

This study from Baltimore, MD, looked at an intervention for preparing family to make difficult decisions for critically ill, hospitalized family members and friends.
Topic: Family; Proxy; Legal; Advocacy; Shared Decision-making; Patient Rights

Reproductive coercion among women living with HIV: an unexplored risk factor for negative sexual and mental health outcomes

A self-reported survey from Baltimorean women living with HIV look at reproductive coercion that may lead to unintended pregnancies, as the pregnancy can be high-risk for mother and baby.
Topic: HIV; Pregnancy

High hepatitis C cure rates among black and nonblack human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in an urban center

This study looked at treatment of hepatitis C in those already infected with HIV among black and non-black patients in Baltimore. The treatment response did not differ by race, mental health or drugs use history.
Topic: HIV; Hep C

The Baltimore HEARS Pilot Study: An Affordable, Accessible, Community-Delivered Hearing Care Intervention

This study from Baltimore looked at the development and initial testing of a hearing care program, the Hearing Equality through Accessible Research & Solutions (HEARS) intervention, to reduce disparities in hearing care among older adults.
Topic: Hearing Loss; Older Adults

Exploration of Gender Norms and Socialization Among Early Adolescents: The Use of Qualitative Methods for the Global Early Adolescent Study

The Global Early Adolescent Study (GEAS) was a multicentric study done in different countries, with one of the sites being Baltimore. It looked at methods used to understand sexuality in early adolescents across different sites.
Topic: Adolescence; Sexuality

Marching to a Different Drummer: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Young Adolescents Who Challenge Gender Norms

In the multi-city multinational Global Early Adolescent Study, of which Baltimore was one city, the investigators looked at the consequences of challenging gender norms. While girls were accepted in taking on ‘masculine’ behaviors, the opposite was not so acceptable.
Topic: Gender Norms; Adolescence

Acceptability of microbicidal vaginal rings and oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among female sex workers in a high-prevalence US city

Female sex workers’ attitudes and knowledge about daily use oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and monthly use vaginal microbicidal rings were studied in Baltimore.
Topic: HIV Prevention; Female Sex Worker (FSW)

Relationships between Vacant Homes and Food Swamps: A Longitudinal Study of an Urban Food Environment

‘Food-swamp index’ was evaluated in Baltimore to understand the mechanisms for the seemingly higher premature mortality rate from cancer and diabetes in areas with a high proportion of vacant homes.
Topic: Food; Neighborhood

Client and Partner Violence Among Urban Female Exotic Dancers and Intentions for Seeking Support and Justice

This study among new female exotic dancers in Baltimore indicated the need to look at system changes to address the violence faced by this group at high risk for the same.
Topic: Partner Violence; Exotic Dancers

Positive Expectations Regarding Aging Linked to More New Friends in Later Life

This study based on the Baltimore Experience Corps Trial, looked at social life and aging. Those with positive expectations had more support and perceptions of support.
Topic: Aging; Social Support

Electronic cigarette use behaviors and motivations among smokers and non-smokers

This study among adult Baltimorean never smokers, former-smokers and current smokers look at the reasons for e-cigarette use. Never smoker e-cigarette users are an interesting group to do further research upon.
Topic: E-cigarette; Smokers

The association of e-cigarette use with exposure to nickel and chromium: A preliminary study of non-invasive biomarkers

Urine, saliva and breath condensate were collected from e-cigarette users from Baltimore in this study. Results showed that higher aerosol concentrations of nickel and chromium were correlated with higher metal internal dose (biomarkers) in the users’ bodies.
Topic: E-cigarette; Nickel; Chromium

Associations of depression status and hopelessness with blood pressure: a 24-year follow-up study

Data from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (ECA) were analyzed to study the relationship between depression and elevated blood pressure. Hopelessness was found to have a positive relationship with high systolic blood pressure.
Topic: Mental Health; Blood Pressure

The Impact of a Multi-Level Multi-Component Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention on Healthy Food Availability, Sales, and Purchasing in a Low-Income Urban Area

The B'more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) was an intervention in low-income areas of Baltimore city considered to be ‘food deserts’. It was applied at multiple levels, using multiple components, with the goal of preventing obesity among children in these areas. As a result, there was increased stocking of healthy products in corner stores, more children purchased the promoted healthier food items (but not their adult caregivers). There was no difference in post-interventional net sales.
Topic: Food; Obesity

Differences in Coping Among African American Women With Breast Cancer and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

Patients taking chemotherapy were studied in a small, pilot study in a Baltimorean hospital (Johns Hopkins) for triple-negative versus non-triple-negative breast cancer coping differences.
Topic: Breast Cancer; African-American Women

Improving Outcomes After Hospitalization: A Prospective Observational Multicenter Evaluation of Care Coordination Strategies for Reducing 30-Day Readmissions to Maryland Hospitals

Relationship between transition from hospital to home and 30-day readmission was studied in two Baltimorean hospitals. The care coordination interventions were associated with lower readmissions.
Topic: 30-day Readmission

APOE Genotype and Nonrespiratory Sleep Parameters in Cognitively Intact Older Adults

Apo E genotype which increases Alzheimer’s Disease risk was studied in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.
Topic: Sleep; Aging

Perceived barriers to bicycling in an urban U.S. environment

Baltimoreans aged 18 to 75 were surveyed in assessing perceived barriers to cycling. Differences by sex were also examined.
Topic: Bicycling; Road Safety

Physical and Sexual Violence Predictors

Gender-based violence history was collected from participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Data revealed that urban women living with HIV and their uninfected counterparts face sustained gender-based violence risk, and past experiences of violence create sustained risk.
Topic: Gender-based violence; HIV/AIDS

Food insecurity, overweight and obesity among low-income African-American families in Baltimore City: Associations with food-related perceptions

Cross-sectional survey data found that obesity and food insecurity are major problems in the low-income, predominantly African-American neighborhoods studied.
Topic: Nutrition; Obesity

Household, psychosocial, and individual-level factors associated with fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake among low-income urban African American youth

An analysis of individual characteristic, psychosocial, and household factors found that both youth and household factors were associated with youth fruits and vegetables and fiber intake, underscoring the need for a multi-level approach to increasing youths' diet quality.
Topic: Nutrition; Childhood Obesity; Adolescent Health

Perceived Social Support From Friends and Parents for Eating Behavior and Diet Quality Among Low-Income, Urban, Minority Youth

This study examines relationships between social support and quality of dietary intake among adolescents
Topic: Nutrition; Adolescent Health

Multi-Level, Multi-Component Approaches to Community Based Interventions for Health Living - A Three Case Comparison

Analyzes three case studies of Multi-Level, Multi-Component intervention programs for community-based public health nutrition changes, including the B'More Healthy Communities for Kids.
Topic: Nutrition; Adolescent Health

Postpartum Weight Retention Risk Factors and Relationship to Obesity at One Year

Explores risk factors for postpartum weight retention one year after delivery in predominantly low income women using data within the Community Child Health Network, a national five-site study that includes Baltimore. The study concludes that postpartum weight retention is a significant contributor to the risk for obesity, and discusses behaviors that may lower the risk.
Topic: Maternal Health; Obesity

Promotion of Service Integration Among Home Visiting Programs and Community Coalitions Working with Low-Income, Pregnant, and Parenting Women

This study assessed service integration promoted by home visitors and community coalitions in Baltimore's Comprehensive Family Support Strategy. The authors argue that home visiting practitioners should consider including coalitions as part of their program models in order to better link clients to appropriate community resources.
Topic: Maternal health

Communication Between Key Stakeholders within a Medical Home: A Qualitative Study

This study determined perceived benefits, detriments, and barriers to communication between pediatric providers and home visitors.
Topic: Child health

Police Encounters Among Needle Exchange Clients in Baltimore: Drug Law Enforcement as a Structural Determinant of Health

This study pilots a monitoring mechanism to document police encounters around programs targeting people who inject drugs. Findings indicate that being younger, being male, and making frequent visits to needle exchange program sites were associated with reported police stops.
Topic: Drug Users; Harm Reduction; Law Enforcement

Attitudes towards Power in Relationships and Sexual Concurrency within Heterosexual Youth Partnerships in Baltimore, MD

Examines the association between attitudes about gender roles and reportedly having more than one sexual partner among Baltimore youth.
Topic: Sexually Transmitted Infections; Adolescent Health

Exotic Dance in Baltimore: From Entry to STI/HIV Risk

Describes the factors that influenced women's entry into exotic dance and explores the relation of these forces to their subsequent STI/HIV risk trajectory.
Topic: Sex Work; Sexually Transmitted Infections

Structural vulnerabilities to HIV/STI risk among female exotic dancers in Baltimore, Maryland

An assessment of the relationship between vulnerability and risk behavior indicated that exotic dancers with a high vulnerability score were more likely to report sex exchange and multiple sex partnerships.
Topic: Sex Work; Sexually Transmitted Infections

Risk Managers' Descriptions of Programs to Support Second Victims after Adverse Events

Investigated the presence, features, and perceived efficacy of support programs for clinicians involved in adverse events.
Topic: Physicians

Identifying Changes in Scores on the EORTC-QLQ-C30 Representing a Change in Patients' Supportive Care Needs

This secondary analysis examined how changes on a health-related quality-of-life measure represents important changes in supportive care needs in newly-diagnosed cancer patients.
Topic: Medical; Patient Care

Engaging City Youth in Urban Agriculture: Examining a Farm-Based High School Internship Program through the Lens of Self-Determination Theory

A year-long case study examined the experiences of eleventh- and twelfth-grade students participating in a youth internship program at a farm in Baltimore. Findings indicate specific strategies that urban agriculture programs can use to more effectively engage youth.
Topic: Urban Agriculture; Youth

HIV testing among youth in a high-risk city: prevalence, predictors and gender differences

Describes the prevalence of past-year HIV testing, and evaluates associations between HIV testing and individual- and partner-level factors by gender among heterosexually experienced adolescents in Baltimore.
Topic: Adolescent Health; Sexual Health

"What makes you think you have special privileges because you're a police officer?" A qualitative exploration of police's role in the risk environment of female sex workers

Female sex workers in Baltimore discuss experiences of police verbal harassment, sexual exploitation, extortion, and a lack of police responsiveness to 911 calls in emergencies. This study underscores the need for targeting police in reducing sex workers' HIV and other risks.
Topic: Sex Work; Law Enforcement; Harm Reduction

Impact of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: An Environmental Intervention to Improve Diet Among African American Youth

Assessed the impact of a youth-targeted multilevel nutrition intervention aimed to increase availability and selection of healthful foods. The intervention was associated with reductions in youth BMI.
Topic: Nutrition; Obesity; Adolescent Health

B'more healthy: retail rewards - design of a multi-level communications and pricing intervention to improve the food environment in Baltimore City

Describes a performance-based pricing and communications incentive in small food stores as a strategy to encourage local wholesalers and storeowners to share responsibility in creating a healthier food supply.
Topic: Nutrition; Obesity

Characteristics of Youth Food Preparation in Low-Income, African-American Homes: Associations with Healthy Eating Index Scores

This study explores food preparation behaviors of adolescents and analyzes a potential association to diet quality.
Topic: Nutrition; Adolescent Health

Healthy versus Unhealthy Suppliers in Food Desert Neighborhoods: A Network Analysis of Corner Stores' Food Supplier Networks

Using network analysis, the authors determine how different corner store and food supplier characteristics are correlated. They argue that suppliers fall into two categories: Those providing primarily healthy foods and those providing primarily unhealthy foods.
Topic: Nutrition; Food Deserts

Low-income African-American adults share weight status, food-related psychosocial factors and behaviours with their children

This study examined the weight status, psychosocial characteristics, and food-related behaviors of low-income African-American children and found they are positively associated with that of their adult caregivers. These findings may help inform obesity treatment or prevention programs and interventions aimed at parents and families.
Topic: Obesity; Child Health; Family Health

Increasing access to fresh produce by pairing urban farms with corner stores: a case study in a low-income urban setting

This pre-post evaluation found that the pairing of urban farms and corner stores in Baltimore is feasible and could be a new model to increase access to fruits and vegetables among low-income urban neighborhoods.
Topic: Nutrition

Combining Ground-Truthing and Technology to Improve Accuracy in Establishing Children's Food Purchasing Behaviors

Introduces a technology-based method for collecting information on food source usage among children in Baltimore City.
Topic: Nutrition; Technology

Incorporating Systems Science Principles into the Development of Obesity Prevention Interventions: Principles, Benefits, and Challenges

Outlines a set of principles for developing community-level models for obesity control, and highlights the benefits and challenges involved in the process.
Topic: Obesity

Intravenous Iron Exposure and Mortality in Patients on Hemodialysis

Examined the associations between short- and long-term iron exposure on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in dialysis patients.
Topic: Dialysis; Medical

When Using Patient-Reported Outcomes in Clinical Practice, the Measure Matters: A Randomized Controlled Trial

The authors advise careful selection of the patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures to be used in clinical practice to inform individual patient management and provide evidence of which PROs are best suited for clinical use.
Topic: Medical; Patient Care

Comparison of Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Patient Satisfaction Scores for Specialty Hospitals and General Medical Hospitals: Confounding Effect of Survey Response Rate

Compares satisfaction scores of specialty hospitals and general medical hospitals and finds that specialty hospitals have a significantly higher overall patient satisfaction score. However, the authors warn that much of the difference disappears when adjusted for survey response rate.
Topic: Medical; Patient Care

An instrumental variable approach finds no associated harm or benefit from early dialysis initiation in the United States

This retrospective cohort study uses an instrumental variable approach to examine the association between dialysis initiation and mortality.
Topic: Dialysis; Medical

Predialysis Systolic BP Variability and Outcomes in Hemodialysis Patients

Examines the association of BP variability with clinical outcomes in hemodialysis patients.
Topic: Dialysis; Medical

Predialysis Health, Dialysis Timing, and Outcomes among Older United States Adults

Examines the association of predialysis health with timing of dialysis initiation in older adult patients and contrasts morbidity and mortality outcomes among patients with early versus later initiation.
Topic: Dialysis; Medical

Respondent-driven sampling for an adolescent health study in vulnerable urban settings: a multi-country study

Describes the methodology of a respondent-driven sampling survey to recruit male and female adolescents living in economically distressed urban settings and illustrates challenges and necessary adaptations for use.
Topic: Adolescent Health

Prevalence and Determinants of Adolescent Pregnancy in Urban Disadvantaged Settings Across Five Cities

Explores the sociodemographic, behavioral, and environmental-level factors associated with adolescent pregnancy across give urban disadvantaged settings and discovers substantial variability by location due to differences in sexual experience and environmental context.
Topic: Adolescent Health; Reproductive Health

Prevalence and Health Impact of Intimate Partner Violence and Non-partner Sexual Violence Among Female Adolescents Aged 15-19 Years in Vulnerable Urban Environments: A Multi-Country Study

Female adolescents from urban environments around the world participated in this cross-sectional survey to identify the prevalence of past-year physical and sexual intimate partner violence, and lifetime and past-year non-partner sexual violence. Findings affirm the negative health influence of gender based violence even in disadvantaged urban settings that present a range of competing health threats.
Topic: Intimate Partner Violence

Relation between the Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program cycle and dietary quality in low-income African Americans in Baltimore, Maryland

Examines SNAP (food stamps) recipients' nutrient intake during the days and weeks after benefit disbursement.
Topic: Nutrition

B'More healthy communities for kids: design of a multi-level intervention for obesity prevention for low-income African American children

Discusses a multi-level, multi-component intervention to increase access to, demand for, and consumption of healthier foods by low-income African American children. Emphasizes both the built environment (food sources) and the social environment (families and peers).
Topic: Nutrition; Child Health

The Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways Model: A Multi-Level Framework on Maternal, Paternal, and Child Health Disparities Derived by Community-Based Participatory Research

Five sites, including Baltimore, comprise the Community Child Health Network (CCHN). This article introduces the Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways Model, developed by the CCHN, to discuss improved family outcomes.
Topic: Child Health; Family Health

Residency schedule, burnout and patient care among first-year residents

A cross-sectional survey of first-year medicine residents assessed residency schedule characteristics to evaluate which elements were associated with resident burnout and fatigue and whether resident burnout and fatigue were associated with lower perceived quality of patient care.
Topic: Medical; Physicians

In the Wake of the 2003 and 2011 Duty Hours Regulations, How Do Internal Medicine Interns Spend Their Time?

In light of changes to common program requirements for graduate medical students, this study aimed to determine how internal medicine interns spend their time in the hospital, comparing the years 2011 and 2003.
Topic: Physicians; Medical

On higher ground: ethical reasoning and its relationship with error disclosure

Surveys of house officers in internal medicine at Johns Hopkins Hospital found an association between ethical reasoning scores and acknowledging medical errors, providing detailed explanations of the error, and taking personal responsibility. The authors suggest that ethical training may help to improve disclosure of medical errors.
Topic: Medical; Physicians

Building Connections Between Officers and Baltimore City Youth: Key Components of a Police-Youth Teambuilding Program

Analysis of a police-youth program indicates that the program successfully brings officers and youth together in a situation in which they have equal status, share common goals, must cooperate to succeed, and have the support of authority figures. Outcomes include reduced stereotyping of the opposite group and a desire for future positive interactions.
Topic: Youth; Law Enforcement

Violence against women in sex work and HIV risk implications differ qualitatively by perpetrator

In-depth interviews and brief surveys used to describe the nature of abuse against women in sex work, and its STI/HIV implications, across perpetrators. Findings affirm the need to address physical and sexual violence as a social determinant of health for women in sex work.
Topic: Intimate Partner Violence; Sex Work

How You Screen is as Important as Whether You Screen: A Qualitative Analysis of Violence Screening Practices in Reproductive Health Clinics

Qualitative, in-depth interviews with healthcare providers in urban reproductive health clinics in Baltimore City were used to understand screening practices for intimate partner violence. Findings demonstrated substantial variation in screening practices, despite existence of a screening tool.
Topic: Intimate Partner Violence

Effects of Baltimore's Safe Streets Program on Gun Violence: A Replication of Chicago's CeaseFire Program

Compares changes in number of homicides and nonfatal shooting incidents in Baltimore neighborhoods that implemented an evidence-based public health approach to preventing gun violence. Program-related reductions in homicides appear to be linked with conflict mediations conducted by program outreach workers.
Topic: Gun Violence

Process Evaluation of Healthy Bodies, Healthy Souls: a church-based health intervention program in Baltimore City

Details a three-part process evaluation adopted to evaluated implementation success of a church-based health intervention program. Success was measured by reach, dose delivered, and fidelity of interactive sessions.
Topic: Nutrition

Development and implementation of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: a youth-targeted intervention to improve the urban food environment

A process evaluation of a youth-targeted environmental intervention aimed to increase the availability and consumption of healthy foods.
Topic: Nutrition; Adolescent Health

Environmental Factors That Impact the Eating Behaviors of Low-income African American Adolescents in Baltimore City

Qualitative research using in-depth interviews, focus groups, and direct observation found six thematic categories of food-related habits of low-income, African American, urban adolescents.
Topic: Nutrition

"This is Our Sanctuary": Perceptions of Safety among Exotic Dancers in Baltimore, Maryland

This qualitative study explores the nature of the safety climate of exotic dance clubs in Baltimore. The authors assert that understanding the contextual factors that influence how dancers prioritize risk in their work settings is crucial for creating programs to reduce risk.
Topic: Sex Work; Harm Reduction

Risky Food Safety Behaviors Are Associated with Higher BMI and Lower Healthy Eating Self-Efficacy and Intentions among African American Churchgoers in Baltimore

Investigates the relationship of health indicators and psychosocial factors with food safety behaviors and identifies groups who are more likely to practice risky food safety behaviors which can lead to foodborne illness.
Topic: Nutrition; Food Safety

Healthier Home Food Preparation Methods and Youth and Caregiver Psychosocial Factors Are Associated with Lower BMI in African American Youth

Investigated the relationship between home food preparation and BMI of African American adolescents and their caregivers. The authors argue that family meals are a promising adolescent obesity prevention strategy, but it is important to target both frequency and healthfulness of meals prepared at home.
Topic: Nutrition; Obesity; Adolescent Health

More than a dance: The production of sexual health risk in the exotic dance clubs in Baltimore, USA

This study examines the nature of the physical, social, and economic risk environments in promoting drug and sexual risk behaviors, and illuminates characteristics of the environment that should be targeted for interventions.
Topic: Sex Work

The Geography of Heterosexual Partnerships in Baltimore City Adults

This study builds on an older study that found STD clinic patients in Baltimore were found to seek partners within close proximity, and finds the same results in a non-STD clinic population. The authors argue a continuing need for neighborhood approaches to intervention programs in urban areas.
Topic: Sexually Transmitted Infections

Korean American Storeowners' Perceived Barriers and Motivators for Implementing a Corner Store-Based Program

Uses in-depth interviews with Korean American corner store owners to examine the motivating factors for participation in a year-long corner store based program, barriers to program implementation, perceived effectiveness of intervention materials, and perceptions about the program. Found that the level of support and active participation of storeowners can greatly influence the success of corner store-based nutrition interventions.
Topic: Nutrition

Access to food source and food source use are associated with healthy and unhealthy food-purchasing behaviours among low-income African-American adults in Baltimore City

Explores food-purchasing patterns in low-income areas in the context of food source use and access. The authors found that corner stores are easily accessible and frequently used food sources, and they argued that interventions to increase the availability and promotion of healthy foods in corner stores are needed.
Topic: Nutrition

Proximity to vacant buildings in associated with increased fire risk in Baltimore, Maryland, homes

Empirically measures the association between property vacancy and fire risk at the individual household level. The authors argue that measurement of this risk can motivate property owners, policy makers, and insurers to invest in risk reduction measures that include building maintenance and trash removal.
Topic: Injury Prevention

Risks associated with crack cocaine smoking among exotic dancers in Baltimore MD

A cross-sectional study to examine the prevalence and correlates of crack cocaine smoking among a sample of exotic dancers finds high levels of drug use and sexual risk behaviors as well as a number of risks behaviors associated with crack cocaine smoking. The authors argue a need for targeted interventions.
Topic: Sex Work; Drug Users

Parent Perspectives of Health Related Quality of Life for Adolescents With Bladder Exstrophy-Epispadias as Measured by the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form 50

Studies parent-reported health related quality of life for adolescents with bladder exstrophy-epispadias.
Topic: Adolescent Health

Food Insecurity Is Associated With Food-Related Psychosocial Factors and Behaviors Among Low-Income African American Adults in Baltimore City

Discusses the relationship between food insecurity and knowledge, self-efficacy, intentions, healthy and unhealthy food getting, and preparation, and argues that efforts to improve the nutritional health of the food insecure population should focus on psychosocial factors and food-related behaviors.
Topic: Nutrition

Process Evaluation of Baltimore Healthy Stores: A Pilot Health Intervention Program With Supermarkets and Corner Stores in Baltimore City

A feasibility study of an environmental intervention with the goal to increase availability of health food options and promote them at point of purchase in low-income urban settings. Results indicate that small food store-based intervention programs are feasible to implement and are a viable means of increasing healthy food availability and a good location for point-of-purchase promotions.
Topic: Nutrition

An Urban Food Store Intervention Positively Affects Food-Related Psychosocial Variables and Food Behaviors

This publication is an impact evaluation of an intervention trial in nine food stores that included an environmental component to increase stocks of more nutritious foods and point-of-purchase promotions including signage for healthy choices and interactive nutrition education sessions.
Topic: Nutrition

Healthy food purchasing among African American youth: associations with child gender, adult caregiver characteristics and the home food environment

Examines how factors related to the home food environment and individual characteristics are associated with healthy food purchasing among low-income African American adolescents.
Topic: Nutrition

Utilization patterns and correlates of retention among clients of the needle exchange program in Baltimore, Maryland

Patterns of retention in the Baltimore Needle Exchange Program from 1994 to 2006 were calculated, and characteristics of low retention were identified to include young age, being married, having an injection drug use history of less than 20 years, and living farther away from the program site.
Topic: Drug Users; Harm Reduction

Evaluation of the Staying Alive programme: Training injection drug users to properly administer naloxone and save lives

The purpose of this study was to evaluate a Baltimore program which trained drug users to prevent and respond to opiate overdose using techniques including mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and administration of naloxone. Results provide additional evidence to support the effectiveness of overdose prevention training programs that include skills building for drug users to administer naloxone.
Topic: Drug Users; Harm Reduction

Disclosing Medical Errors to Patients: It's not What You Say, It's What They Hear

This study determined that in the event of injury by medical care, patients will probably respond more favorably to physicians who apologize and accept responsibility for medical errors than those who do not apologize or who give ambiguous responses.
Topic: Medical Error; Physicians

Neighborhood Effects on Birthweight: An Exploration of Psychosocial and Behavioral Pathways in Baltimore, 1995-1996

Examined the impact of neighborhood environment on birthweight and found that neighborhood factors may influence birthweight by shaping maternal behavioral risks. Thus, the authors argue, neighborhood level interventions should be considered to address multiple maternal and infant health risks.
Topic: Birth Outcomes

A corner store intervention in a low-income urban community is associated with increased availability and sales of some healthy foods

An evaluation of a corner store-based nutrition intervention trial in Baltimore City demonstrates that increases in stocking and promotion of healthy foods can result in increased sales, and interventions in small corner stores may be a feasible means of improving the availability of healthy foods in a low-income urban community.
Topic: Nutrition; Food Desert

Assessment of dietary intake in an inner-city African American population and development of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to highlight foods and nutrients for a nutritional invention

Characterizes the diets of low-income inner-city African Americans in order to develop a population-specific questionnaire that can be used for a nutritional intervention program aimed at reducing the risks of chronic disease. The results highlighted specific foods and nutrients that would be targeted in the nutritional intervention.
Topic: Nutrition

"The life they save may be mine": Diffusion of overdose prevention information from a city sponsored programme

This qualitative study examines diffusion of information and innovation among participants in Staying Alive, an overdose prevention and naloxone distribution program in Baltimore. The study demonstrates injection drug users' interest in and ability to diffuse overdose prevention information and response skills to the injection drug use community.
Topic: Drug Users; Harm Reduction

Illicit Drug Use and Adverse Birth Outcomes: Is It Drugs or Context?

Examined the degree to which adverse birth outcomes associated with use of marijuana, cocaine, and opiates are due to the drugs versus surrounding factors. Found that no drug was significantly related to low birth weight, and argues that prevention efforts to improve newborn health must also address the surrounding context in which drug use frequently occurs.
Topic: Birth Outcomes; Drug Users

Understanding the Food Environment in a Low-Income Urban Setting: Implications for Food Store Interventions

The authors argue that corner stores are an important venue for nutrition intervention, and they use a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to develop a food store-based interventions for low-income African Americans in Baltimore.
Topic: Nutrition

Human Papillomavirus Seroprevalence Among Young Male and Female Drug Users

Found that HPV seroprevalence was high among young drug users and significantly higher among females than males, supporting previous findings.
Topic: Drug Users; Sexually Transmitted Infections

Choices for Healthy Outcomes In Caring for End Stage Renal Disease

This study places emphasis on the perspective of dialysis patients in order to provide information and tools to guide physicians and providers in selecting optimal dialysis practices for their patients with end stage renal disease.
Dialysis; Renal Disease

Trends in low birth weight infants and changes in Baltimore's childbearing population, 1972-77

Examines effects of changes in the characteristics of the childbearing population on the trends in low birth weight rates in Baltimore between 1972 and 1977.
Topic: Birth Outcomes

Functional Status of Persons with HIV Infection in an Ambulatory Setting

Reviews baseline clinical and demographic data on patients with HIV infection presenting for care between December 1988 and May 1991 and describes their functional status.
Topic: HIV/AIDS

Patient's view of dialysis care: Development of a taxonomy and rating of importance of different aspects of care

Characterizes dialysis care from the patients' perspective and ranks broad aspects of care using transcripts from patient focus groups.
Topic: Dialysis; Renal Disease

Effects of Physical Activity on Preterm Birth

A cohort study of low income women investigating the effect of physical activity on the risk of preterm birth.
Topic: Birth Outcomes

Drug users' involvement in the drug economy: implications for harm reduction and HIV prevention programs

Explores individual and social characteristics associated with cocaine and heroin users' involvement in the drug economy in Baltimore. Of the sample, 44% held at least one role in the drug economy.
Topic: Drug Users

Social influences on the transition to injection drug use among young heroin sniffers: a qualitative analysis

This qualitative study explores the transition of young drug users' from heroin sniffing to injecting and found a range of influencing factors including families, friends, sexual partners, expense of sniffing compared to perceived cost of injecting, and the endemic nature of injection in local neighborhoods.
Topic: Drug Users; Harm Reduction

Poor Validity of Self-Reported Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Vaccination Status among Young Drug Users

This study found that more than half of the young drug using survey participants claiming to be vaccinated from hepatitis B virus were actually susceptible to HBV. The authors argue clinicians should adopt a "Don't Ask, Vaccinate" vaccination policy for young drug users.
Topic: Drug Users; Hepatitis B; Harm Reduction

A Programmable Prompting Device Improves Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Subjects with Memory Impairment

Measures the effect of a memory-prompting device on adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected subjects.
Topic: HIV/AIDS

Circumstances surrounding the first injection experience and their association with future syringe sharing behaviors in young urban injection drug users

The authors found strong evidence that risky drug using behaviors can be established as early as the first injection experience and argue the need for early harm reduction prevention interventions such as educating non-injectors of the harms associated with unsafe injection practices.
Topic: Drug Users; Harm Reduction

Herpes simplex virus 2 and syphilis among young drug users in Baltimore, Maryland

This study revealed a particularly high seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 and syphilis among a cohort of young drug users, especially females.
Topic: Drug Users; Sexually Transmitted Infections

Prevalence and Correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis infections, and Bacterial Vaginosis Among a Cohort of Young Injection Drug Users in Baltimore, Maryland

Studied sexually transmitted infection prevalence and correlates among young injection drug users, and found that despite high sexual risk, prevalence of this cohort was similar to that of the general population.
Topic: Drug Users; Sexually Transmitted Infections

Prospective Evaluation of Community-Acquired Acute-Phase Hepatitis C Virus Infection

This study aimed to characterize acute-phase hepatitis C virus infections in injection drug users, and found a need for long-term follow-up to ascertain whether there is a viral persistence. Additionally, results underscored the importance of nucleic acid screening of blood donations to prevent hepatitis C virus transmission.
Topic: Drug Users; Hepatitis C

The evaluation of the JEWEL project: An innovative economic enhancement and HIV prevention intervention study targeting drug using women involved in prostitution

Evaluates an economic empowerment and HIV prevention intervention targeting illicit drug-using women who were involved in prostitution in Baltimore. In comparing self-reported risk behaviors, the researchers found significant reductions in receiving drugs or money for sex, the median number of sex trade partners per month, daily drug use, amount of money spent on drugs, and daily crack use.
Topic: Sex Work; Drug Users; Harm Reduction

Release from Jail: Moment of Crisis or Window of Opportunity for Female Detainees

The Window Study investigated factors associated with the perceived availability of stable housing upon release of female prisoners from detention and suggests the importance of pre-release planning and continuity of care for female detainees, particularly for those who have engaged in sex work.
Topic: Sex Work; Drug Users

Sexual and Drug Risk Behaviors Among Women Who Have Sex With Women

This study compared risk behaviors of female drug users who had reported how recently they had sex with women, and found that more recent sexual experiences is correlated with a higher rate of drug and sexual risk behaviors compared to women who had never had sex with women.
Topic: Drug Users; Sex Work

Measuring conflict management, emotional self-efficacy, and problem solving confidence in an evaluation of outdoor programs for inner-city youth in Baltimore, Maryland

This study describes a process for generating outcomes measurement instruments for youth participants in Baltimore City Outward Bound programs. The study measured changes in conflict management, emotional self-efficacy, and problem solving confidence in order to better understand the salient elements of outdoor education programs, the outcomes these generate, and best practices for outdoor programs to promote optimal benefits for participants.
Topic: Emotional Health

Development and implementation of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: a youth-targeted intervention to improve the urban food environment

This study evaluates a youth-targeted environmental intervention (Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones) that aimed to increase the availability of healthy foods and promote these foods through interactive activities in low-income Baltimore City. The study found that recreation centers appear to be a promising location to interact with low-income youth and reinforce exposure to messages.
Topic: Healthy Eating

System dynamics-based evaluation of interventions to promote appropriate waste disposal behaviors in low-income urban areas: A Baltimore case study

This case study of low-income urban neighborhoods in Baltimore demonstrates the advantages of using a system dynamics model of municipal solid waste management to quantify the impacts of interventions on residential waste related behavior. The authors argue that this model can help improve policy making by identifying packages of interventions and field testing those few rather than pilot testing all combinations.
Topic: Litter / Waste Management

Community-Academic Partnership to Investigate Low Birth Weight Deliveries and Improve Maternal and Infant Outcomes at a Baltimore City Hospital

This case control study evaluates characteristics associated with low birth weight deliveries and identifies collaborative approaches with obstetricians and community services to improve birth outcomes.
Topic: Birth Outcomes / Infant Health

Influences on tobacco use among urban Hispanic young adults in Baltimore: findings from a qualitative study

This study used focus groups to explore the social and environmental influences and norms that encourage or discourage tobacco use among Hispanic young adults in Baltimore. The results provide guidance for the development of appropriate tobacco-related policy interventions and prevention strategies for Hispanic youth. 
Topic: Tobacco Use

Changes in Attitudes toward Guns and Shootings following Implementation of the Baltimore Safe Streets Intervention

This study measures perceived norms and viewpoints of male youth regarding gun violence pre-implementation and 1-year post-implementation of the Safe Streets intervention. The results indicate greater improvement of the attitudes toward violence in the intervention community compared to the control community and offer promising insights into future community violence prevention efforts.
Topic: Gun Violence

Mobilizing for policy: using community-based participatory research to impose minimum packaging requirements on small cigars

This paper describes a community-academic-practice partnership’s efforts to decrease small cigar use in youth adults in Baltimore through legislative strategies.
Topic: Tobacco Use