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A World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Injuries, Violence and Accident Prevention

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Keyword: road traffic crashes

The burden of road traffic crashes is significant in Brazil, which has one of the highest road traffic mortality rates of any country in the Americas.
In a recent publication, “Impact of Road Traffic Deaths on Expected Years of Life Lost and Reduction in Life Expectancy in Brazil,” JH-IIRU faculty, including associate director, Aruna Chandran, and senior technical advisor, David Bishai, as well as colleagues from Universidade Federal do Rio Grand do Sul, calculate years of life lost and the resulting reduction in life expectancy as a result of road traffic deaths in order to better characterize the full extent of the burden of road traffic deaths.

The research indicates that road traffic deaths in Brazil account for more than 1.5 million life-years lost, with 80% occurring among males. The team also discovered that road traffic crashes reduce at-birth life expectancy in Brazilians by approximately 9 months for males and 2 months for females.  The authors also show how the years of life lost could be reduced if the different geographic regions in Brazil improved their road safety statistics to match those of the best-performing region.

With road traffic crashes responsible for nearly 1.3 million deaths globally each year (a number that is expected to increase by 65% by 2020 if no interventions are made), illustrating the years of life lost and the resulting reduction in life expectancy, as well as the potential for reducing the road mortality rate, is vital to support for the need for the continued implementation of evidence-based road safety interventions in Brazil.

“Impact of Road Traffic Deaths on Expected Years of Life Lost and Reduction in Life Expectancy in Brazil” will appear in the upcoming edition of Demography.

To read the entire article, click here.

For more information on the Road Safety in 10 Countries Project (RS-10) click here.

Typical of many developing countries, Vietnam’s burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs) is high—about half of all injury-related fatalities are from RTIs-- and as the population has increased, the number of motor vehicles has risen proportionately as well. And despite Vietnam having one of the strictest alcohol legislations in the region, a recent study concluded that more than 10% of all road traffic crashes were caused by alcohol.

Recently, members of the Johns Hopkins International Injury Research Unit (JH-IIRU), including associate faculty member Nhan T. Tran, associate director Abdulgafoor M. Bachani and Jeffrey C. Lunnen, along with their colleagues from the Hanoi School of Public Health and the World Health Organization, Vietnam, published a study aimed at illustrating the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) around alcohol use and drinking and driving by age and sex in three provinces in Vietnam.

The study, entitled “Drinking and Driving in Vietnam: Public Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices,” which appears in the special issue of Traffic Injury Prevention, concluded that in order to effectively reduce the prevalence of drinking and driving in Vietnam, first understanding the prevailing attitudes surrounding the practice is essential.  The study found that an increased enforcement-based, multifaceted approach, which may include enhanced enforcement of existing legislation, increased social marketing and programs that provide alternatives to drinking and driving, is needed.

In the spring of 2012, The JH-IIRU published “Public Health Burden of Road Traffic Injuries: An Assessment from Ten Low- and Middle-Income Countries,” a special issue of Traffic Injury Prevention as part of theRoad Safety in 10 Countries project (RS-10). This landmark publication includes 11 scientific papers jointly authored with 50 colleagues from JH-IIRU and their in-country collaborators that contribute much-needed new knowledge to the burgeoning issue of road traffic injuries in low- and middle- income countries.

You can access the full article along with the entire special issue here.

Road traffic crashes in India are the highest in the world, with more than half a million road traffic injuries and 120,000 related deaths each year. Because of these shocking figures, it is imperative that road safety policies and control programs are implemented at both the national and state levels as quickly as possible.

In order to effectively evaluate current policies, as well as formulate and implement new ones for the prevention of road traffic crashes, researchers must have good quality road traffic data.  John Hopkins International Injury Research Unit (JH-IIRU) team members, including Dr. Shivam Gupta and Shirin Wadhwaiya, along with colleagues from the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, India, address this issue in “Evidence-Based Road Safety Practice in India: Assessment of the Adequacy of Publicly Available Data in Meeting Requirements for Comprehensive Road Safety Data Systems.”

The researchers used the recently published good practices manual on data collection from the World Health Organization (WHO) to compare current publicly available data sources from the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) and the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH).  The study found that while data at the national level was more comprehensive than at the state level, there is still an urgent need to improve data collection and documentation at all levels, which will make possible continued effective road safety research.

“Evidence-Based Road Safety Practice in India: Assessment of the Adequacy of Publicly Available Data in Meeting Requirements for Comprehensive Road Safety Data Systems,” is part of “Public Health Burden of Road Traffic Injuries: An Assessment from Ten Low- and Middle-Income Countries,” a special issue of Traffic Injury Prevention published by the JH-IIRU as part of the Road Safety in 10 Countries project (RS-10). This landmark publication includes 11 scientific papers jointly authored with 50 colleagues from JH-IIRU and their in-country collaborators that contribute much-needed new knowledge to the burgeoning issue of road traffic injuries in low- and middle- income countries.

You can access the full article along with the entire special issue here.

To find out more about the Johns Hopkins International Injury Research Unit, contact us at IIRU@jhsph.edu.

With an estimated 1.2 million people dying in each year, road traffic crashes are a serious, but sadly, often overlooked disease burden around the world. This burden is more severe in low- and middle-income countries, where road traffic fatality rates are double what they are in developed countries.
To address this burgeoning trend, in 2010 and with funding from Bloomberg Philanthropies, the Johns Hopkins International Injury Research Unit (JH-IIRU) joined a consortium of six partners in the
Road Safety in 10 Countries Project (RS-10), a five-year initiative dedicated to reducing the burden of road traffic injuries in ten low- and middle-income countries by evaluating and implementing road safety solutions in places where interventions are needed the most.
The goal of the project is simple: save lives by providing evidence for stronger road safety interventions around the world. But the IIRU team can’t accomplish this goal alone. In order to be effective, they depend on local personnel in each country to not only help develop strong ties within each targeted community, but to conduct evaluations and collect data at each site. To that end, the JH-IIRU team has created a training and capacity development component of the RS-10 project.
Since the project’s inception, and through a program built on a country-specific mission, a sound public health approach, and scientific rigor, the JH-IIRU addresses the basic sciences of public health, a social science component, and health systems analysis with a special focus on ethical and cultural issues. JH-IIRU has developed and employed a concerted, three-pronged strategy for capacity development comprising of 1) Learning by doing 2) Courses and 3) Workshops.
Led by JH-IIRU Associate Director, Abdulgafoor M. Bachani, in the first two years of the program these three approaches have yielded impressive results and continue to do so. In each country, JH?IIRU collaborates with local research groups or universities to facilitate data collection for monitoring and evaluation. In this learning by doing approach, the JH-IIRU staff trains local collaborators for data collection through activities such as observational studies, road-side interviews, database creation and data analysis, to name a few.  

 
Cambodia _obs_parts
Participants learning how to conduct observational studies in Cambodia.

Cambodia_Helmet_Obs
Helmet use observational study.


The important results of this work are showcased in the special issue of the journal
Traffic Injury Prevention.


Building on existing coursework at JHSPH, JH-IIRU has also developed and modified courses specific to the global burden of road traffic injuries. Working to create live (in-person) and online versions of many of their offerings, the team offers a sequence of four courses to comprise an innovative program in Road Traffic Injury Prevention and Control. These courses combine the expertise at JH-IIRU with the specific local needs of participating countries. Free access to course materials for two of the courses via the OpenCourseWare (OCW) system at JHU is already
available, while the remaining two classes will be made available shortly. This long-distance learning option makes effective training for health and allied professionals in each country possible.
Finally, since 2010, the JH-IIRU has conducted workshops in each of the 10 countries, which have been tailored to meet local needs. More than 445 individuals from each country have been trained in topics ranging from data collection and management, to evaluation methods for road safety, to handing of data for injury surveillance. Recently, members of the JH-IIRU team hosted workshops in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The National Workshop on Evaluation Methods for Road Safety focused on topics such as evaluation designs, data collection methodologies, database creation and management, data analysis, and dissemination of findings, while at the same time provided an opportunity for cross-country collaboration.
In an article which appeared in Cambodia’s Koh Sentepheap newspaper, attendee H.E. Mr. Peou Maly, Deputy Secretary General of General Secretariat of the National Road Safety Committee, applauded the workshop, saying he firmly believed it would contribute to efforts of the Royal Government of Cambodia in reducing the number of road crashes.

 
Cambodia_workshop
Participants register for a training workshop.


In Kenya, JHU-IIRU held a training workshop in March to train Naivasha district hospital data collectors and hospital administrators on the data collection for the trauma registry.  

 
Kenya_Trauma_registry
An example of a trauma registry form, Naivasha Hospital

And in Russia, JHU-IIRU held workshops in February and March 2012.  Seventy professors and data collectors from Ivanovo University were trained to conduct both observational studies and roadside surveys on seatbelt use and speeding during a two- day workshop.  A three-day workshop to address data gaps in surveillance and registry systems was attended by 40 representatives from the Ivanovo Ministry of Health, Lipetsk Ministry of Health, Ivanovo Regional Accident and Trauma Centre, and Lipetsk Regional Accident and Trauma Centre.  Members of the Lipetsk Regional Accident and Emergency Trauma Centre indicated that the data collection approach they learned will help them not only to build their own data collection system for collecting and reporting the data within the RS-10 project, but also help to improve their own data collection processes in their daily work.  It is vital, attendees said, to have their daily data collection work verified with police in order to ensure the quality of the collected data.
 

Russia_Spring_workshop
Attendees at a workshop in Ivanovo, Russia  

In addition to these in-country workshops, JH?IIRU has also facilitated cross-country learning through a special session at the Safety 2010 World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion in London, and a collaborators workshop in Baltimore in October 2011. These workshops made possible important cross?country discussions on data collection strategies, standardizing methods across countries, and challenges as well as planning for more effective evaluation strategy in each country. Based on the success of these sessions, JH-IIRU is exploring hosting a scientific session on RS?10 at theWorld Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion in New Zealand, 2012.

Training and capacity development is a vital part of the RS-10 project that will help ensure in-country collaborators, partners and researchers are an integral and effective part of the projects efforts to reduce the growing burden of road traffic injuries worldwide.
To find out more, please contact us at
IIRU@jhsph.edu

Every year, approximately 1.3 million people lose their lives in road traffic crashes. This does not even account for the friends and families of the victims, or the countless individuals who survive crashes but must endure lifelong disabilities. Sunday, November 21, 2010, marks the World Day of Remembrance for Road Traffic Victims, an acknowledgement of the millions affected by this global epidemic and the need for prompt action globally. The Johns Hopkins International Injury Research Unit offers its deepest sympathies on this day to the friends and families of road traffic victims, and also assures communities worldwide that their losses have not gone unnoticed.

Local and international organizations continue to work tirelessly to combat the problem of road traffic injuries. The Johns Hopkins International Injury Research Unit is currently working with a consortium of partners on the Road Safety in 10 Countries project, a five-year initiative that draws on support from Bloomberg Philanthropies and the World Health Organization to implement road safety solutions where they are needed most. While there is still much work ahead, the Johns Hopkins International Injury Research Unit is committed to reducing the number of needless injuries and deaths on the world’s roads, and is proud to join hands with global partners in this effort.

For more information about the World Day of Remembrance for Road Traffic Victims, please visit its website. For more information about the Johns Hopkins International Injury Research Unit’s work in road safety, please visit this webpage.

Remembrance

World Day of Remembrance image from www.worlddayofremembrance.org.

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