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Johns Hopkins International Injury Research Unit

A World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Injuries, Violence and Accident Prevention

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Keyword: injuries

The Johns Hopkins University-Makerere University Chronic Consequences of Trauma, Injuries and Disability in Uganda (JHU-MU Chronic TRIAD), is funded by the Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health. Coordinated by the Johns Hopkins International Injury Research Unit (JH-IIRU) in the Department of International Health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, the JHU-MU Chronic TRIAD supports four cohorts of long-term trainees.

In February, five fellows from our third cohort successfully defended their TRIAD-related dissertations and graduated from the program.

The JHU-MU Chronic TRIAD program aims to strengthen research capacity on the long-term health and economic consequences of trauma, injuries and disability across the lifespan in Uganda through an innovative model of sustainable capacity development.

The program is based on the close partnership between Johns Hopkins and Makerere University School of Public Health, two academic institutions with a strong commitment to understanding the long-term impact of trauma and injuries, experience in research, and a history of collaborative work.

Learn more about the program here.

Below are the fellows and their dissertation titles: 

  Chronic TRIAD Jennifer
 
Jennifer Namagembe successfully defended her dissertation, “Assessment of the nature of pre-hospital care provided to road traffic injury patients reporting to Mulago Hospital.”
 
  Chronic TRIAD fellow Claire
 
Claire Biribawa successfully defended her dissertation, “Alcohol intoxication among bodaboda drivers, related injuries and health costs at Mulago National Hospital.” 
 
 Chronic TRIAD Fellow Phoebe

Phoebe Alitubeera, a fellow from our supplementary training program on the intersection between Trauma/Disability and HIV in Uganda (JHU-MU supplementary grant), successfully defended her dissertation, “Utilization of post exposure prophylaxis among health workers following percutaneous injuries in public health facilities in Kampala Capital City.”

  Chronic TRIAD Arthur

Arthur Kiconco successfully defended his dissertation, “Determinants of occupational injuries among building construction workers in Kampala City, Uganda.” 

  Chronic TRIAD Lillian

Lilian Kauma, a fellow from our supplementary training program on the intersection between Trauma/Disability and HIV in Uganda (JHU-MU supplementary grant), successfully defended her dissertation, “HIV-related disabilities and utilization of rehabilitation services by people living with HIV receiving care at the Mulago Immune Suppresive Syndrome Clinic, Kampala, Uganda.” 

On September 18-21, 2016, 11 JH-IIRU faculty and staff members traveled to Tampere, Finland to attend the 12th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion (Safety 2016). The conference brought together more than 1,000 researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and advocates in the field of injury prevention and safety from more than 100 countries.

The theme of the conference "From research to practice," encouraged the use of research data to help in the implementation of practical solutions that will increase safety and reduce injuries. Over 1,300 abstracts were submitted - traffic safety and child safety being the top themes.

The key outcome of the 12th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion was the Tampere Declaration. The Declaration identified common aims and principles on injury and violence prevention reached by participants and the representatives of WHO at the conference during the structured consultation process. 

Safety

JH-IIRU director, Dr. Adnan Hyder and associate director, Dr. Abdul Bachani speak at a session

At the conference, JH-IIRU presented on a wide range of topics including trauma care, drowning, injury prevention and more. In total, JH-IIRU participated in 6 special sessions, 7 pitch presentations, 11 oral presentations and 25 posters. In addition to presentations, JH-IIRU also had an exhibition booth.

JH-IIRU director, Dr. Adnan Hyder served as a plenary speaker for the session, “From research to implementation – building a bridge between science and practice.” He discussed how to turn evidence into practice and policy. Dr. Hyder also served as a moderator for several sessions including: “Developing and evaluating trauma care systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs): Experiences in Africa,” “Child and adolescent injuries in the Arab Gulf: Understanding the burden and risk factors” and “Research to practice: The global road safety program.”

In addition, JH-IIRU presented on several projects with collaborators. Dr. Abdul Bachani, associate director of JH-IIRU, presented on the Health, Economic and Long-term Social Impact of Injuries (HEALS) Study, Dr. Olakunle Alonge presented on the Saving of Lives from Drowning (SoLid) project in Bangladesh, Dr. Amber Mehmood presented on the Mhealth trauma registry in Oman, Dr. Kate Allen presented on child restraint use in the state of Qatar and Dr. Isaac Botchey presented on the efforts to improve trauma care in Kenya.

On the final day of the conference, it was announced that the 13th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion (Safety 2018), will be held November 5-7, 2018 in Bangkok, Thailand. Dr. Adnan Hyder is the Secretary of the ‘International Organization Committee’ of the conferences (chaired by Dr. Etienne Krug of WHO) and is now busy helping to prepare for Safety 2018.

To learn more about the conference, please click here.

Safety group photo

Faculty and staff at the JH-IIRU exhibition booth 

On September 6-7, 2016, Johns Hopkins International Injury Research Unit (JH-IIRU) faculty members including Director Dr. Adnan Hyder, Assistant Scientists, Drs. Qingfeng Li and Olakunle Alonge and Research Associate, Dr. Nino Paichadze traveled to Ethiopia to participate in a national stakeholder meeting on child injuries. The goal of the meeting was to explore and propose a package of evidence based interventions for addressing the burden due to the leading causes of unintentional injuries among children (<15 years) in Ethiopia (such as burns, drownings, road traffic injuries, falls and poisoning). 

During the first day of the meeting, JH-IIRU faculty presented on several topics including: The global burden of child injuries, need/rationale for a response, policy and programs on child injury prevention in Ethiopia and more. The second day of the meeting incorporated workshop sessions where participants worked in small groups to outline steps, implementation plans, and a research and learning agenda for integrating child injury interventions into existing child health programs in Ethiopia. The summary and main findings of the workshop were presented by Dr. Olakunle Alonge.

Meeting in Ethiopia

JH-IIRU faculty meets with representatives from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)                                                                    and the Federal Ministry of Health, Ethiopia to discuss meeting goals and objectives

In Pakistan, injuries and trauma are among the top ten contributors to the burden of disease and disabilities. Other related factors, such as poverty, political instability, and natural disasters as well as the lack of legislation or enforcement of preventative measures contribute to the population’s susceptibility to injuries.

While police and hospital records provide some data on injuries, a recent commentary published in Public Health suggests that it is essential that the public health sector invest in injury prevention by creating a strong, evidence-based strategy, improving national polices, and collaborating with the private sector to promote injury prevention.

In “The challenges of injuries and trauma in Pakistan: An opportunity for concerted action,” JH-IIRU director, Adnan Hyder and Aga Khan University professor, Junaid Razzak, examine the current status of injury prevention and control in Pakistan  as well as the burden and the policy context for interventions in the country.

The commentary goes on to suggest that, because injury prevention and emergency care have been proven to be some of the most cost-effective interventions in the health sector, investing in such measures as traffic enforcement, speed control, helmets, child resistant containers and trained emergency personnel makes sense from both an economic and public health viewpoint.

Drs. Hyder and Razzak are directors of the JHU-Pakistan Fogarty International Collaborative Trauma and Injury Research Training Program (JHU-Pakistan ICIRT). The goal of JHU-Pakistan ICIRT is to build a strong network of professionals and help develop sustainable research capacity on acute care of trauma and injuries and emergency medicine in Pakistan.  For additional information on the program, click here:

http://www.jhsph.edu/faculty/research/map/PK/1227

To access the paper, click here: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0033350612004696#

Non-communicable diseases like cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes and injuries have become the major causes of disability and death in Pakistan, according to a report by a group of researchers that included Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health professor, Adnan A. Hyder. Furthermore, while rates of death and disability from non-communicable diseases are expected to continue to increase, Pakistan’s health care system is unprepared to handle the rising burden. The report suggests that if current trends continue, nearly 4 million people between the ages of 30-69 will die from cardiovascular disease, cancers and chronic respiratory disease by 2025.

The study, “Non-Communicable Diseases and Injuries in Pakistan: Strategic Priorities,” published as part of The Lancet series on Health Transitions in Pakistan, also examined the prevalence of non-communicable diseases  such as road traffic injuries, noting that enforcement of traffic safety laws is weak. Both seat belt and speeding laws are enforced poorly, as is the helmet law for bicycle and motorcycle riders, where hospital-based surveillance data indicates that more than 90 percent of riders do not wear helmets. No legislation exists for vehicle standards, road safety audits or promotion of safer transportation systems.

“Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world. The recognition of injuries as a key component of the national disease burden is an important first step. This issue needs some serious attention from policy makers,” said Hyder, director of the Health Systems program in the Bloomberg School’s Department of International Health and head of the Johns Hopkins International Injury Research Unit.

According to the report, Pakistan was one of the first developing countries to implement an integrated national action plan for non-communicable diseases, but the high-level, government buy-in the plan had initially was withdrawn. The report goes on to explain that the economic effect of non-communicable diseases and injuries is devastating, estimating a cumulative production loss at approximately $3.47 billion.

Hyder and his colleagues recommend several strategies for preventing non-communicable diseases, which includes implementing policy, legislation and programs to support and promote healthy diet and physical activity; directing generated revenue from the increased excise tax on cigarette sales toward prevention initiatives, thereby mitigating the cost of the suggested measures; and re-prioritizing of funds from international donor agencies to fund non-communicable diseases and injuries. The target goal is to reduce the number of premature deaths due to cardiovascular, cancers and respiratory diseases by 20 percent in 2025. The researchers also stress that efforts must also be directed towards prevention of injuries and mental disorders.

The report was published as part of four papers in the Lancet Series which examine the transitions in Pakistan’s health system and focus on the country’s past and present performance in health, specifically after the 18th amendment to the Constitution abolished the federal Ministry of Health. The series also calls for a unified vision for universal and equitable health access across the nation.  Other papers in the Series focus on reproductive and maternal health, non-communicable diseases and injuries, and recommendations for future health reforms.

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