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A World Health Organization Center for Injuries, Violence and Accident Prevention

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Keyword: aruna chandran

 

Recently, members of the Johns Hopkins International Injury Research Unit (JH-IIRU) team, including research program coordinator, Jeffrey C. Lunnen and associated faculty, Aruna Chandran, collaborated with colleagues from the National Institute of Public Health in Cuernavaca, Mexico, and the Center for Health Sciences, University of Guadalajara to published, “The use of Seatbelts and Child Restraints in Three Mexican Cities.”

The study, part of the Road Safety in 10 Countries Project (RS10), aims to demonstrate the need for increased targeted interventions of these safety devices by assessing the prevalence of seatbelt and child restraint use in three cities: Guadalajara-Zapopan, León and Cuernavaca, two RS10 intervention sites and one control site, respectively. When worn properly, seatbelts have been shown to decrease the risk of fatality from a road traffic crash by 40-50% among front seat passengers and 25-75% in rear-seat passengers. Likewise, when child restraints are installed and used correctly, they have been shown to reduce death from road crashes by 70% in infants and 54-80% in small children.

“The Use of Seatbelt and Child Restraints in Three Mexican Cities,” has been published in the International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion.

Access the paper here: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17457300.2012.754477?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dpubmed

Recently, members of the Johns Hopkins International Injury Research Unit (JH-IIRU), including associate director, Aruna Chandran and research program coordinator, Jeffrey C. Lunnen,  contributed to “Distracted Driving: Mobile Phone use while Driving in Three Mexican Cities,” a paper published in Injury Prevention.

The study, possibly the first reporting the prevalence of mobile phone use while driving (MPUWD), was conducted as part of the Road Safety in 10 Countries (RS-10) project by JH-IIRU colleagues from Centro de Investigación en Sistemas de Salud del, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, and Fundación Entornos, A.C and examinesd the prevalence of mobile phone talking and texting among drivers in three cities, Guadalajara-Zapopan, León and Cuernavaca. This publication represents the kind of collaborative effort that is a hallmark of the RS-10 project.

Currently, both Guadalajara-Zapopan and León have legislation prohibiting mobile phone use while driving (MPUWD), but it’s unclear how strict enforcement is.

To read the entire paper, click here:  http://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/early/2012/11/23/injuryprev-2012-040496.long#aff-2

The burden of road traffic crashes is significant in Brazil, which has one of the highest road traffic mortality rates of any country in the Americas.
In a recent publication, “Impact of Road Traffic Deaths on Expected Years of Life Lost and Reduction in Life Expectancy in Brazil,” JH-IIRU faculty, including associate director, Aruna Chandran, and senior technical advisor, David Bishai, as well as colleagues from Universidade Federal do Rio Grand do Sul, calculate years of life lost and the resulting reduction in life expectancy as a result of road traffic deaths in order to better characterize the full extent of the burden of road traffic deaths.

The research indicates that road traffic deaths in Brazil account for more than 1.5 million life-years lost, with 80% occurring among males. The team also discovered that road traffic crashes reduce at-birth life expectancy in Brazilians by approximately 9 months for males and 2 months for females.  The authors also show how the years of life lost could be reduced if the different geographic regions in Brazil improved their road safety statistics to match those of the best-performing region.

With road traffic crashes responsible for nearly 1.3 million deaths globally each year (a number that is expected to increase by 65% by 2020 if no interventions are made), illustrating the years of life lost and the resulting reduction in life expectancy, as well as the potential for reducing the road mortality rate, is vital to support for the need for the continued implementation of evidence-based road safety interventions in Brazil.

“Impact of Road Traffic Deaths on Expected Years of Life Lost and Reduction in Life Expectancy in Brazil” will appear in the upcoming edition of Demography.

To read the entire article, click here.

For more information on the Road Safety in 10 Countries Project (RS-10) click here.


The Johns Hopkins International Injury Research Unit (JH-IIRU) is delighted to announce that associate director, Abdulgafoor M. Bachani has been recently awarded a competitive research grant from the Swami Institute for International Medical Education (SIIME).  The grant, entitled “Preventing Childhood Injuries in Malaysia: Piloting a Home Environment Injury Risk Assessment and Mitigation Program” seeks to develop a better understanding of the burden and breadth of household injuries among children in two districts in Malaysia. 

The project, also involving JH-IIRU associate director Aruna Chandran,  has three fundamental objectives: 1) to develop and pilot test an injury hazard assessment tool that is appropriate for an urban, developing country setting, 2) develop and pilot test an educational pamphlet that will provide information and make suggestions to promote child safety in the home, and 3) develop and pilot test a home-based tutorial program for its feasibility and acceptability as means of disseminating home safety information.

According to Dr. Bachani, the project will continue JH-IIRU’s commitment to collaboration and capacity building by facilitating working relationships with participants in Malaysia, including Faculty of Medicine and Health Services (FMHS), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). The project will also involve mentoring a Malaysian doctoral student.

Dr. Bachani submitted the application along with collaborator, Dr. Kulanthayan K.C. Mani from the Road Safety Research Centre at the Universiti Putra, Malaysia.

“Unintentional home injuries are a major cause of death and disability among children, especially in low- and middle-income countries,” Bachani said.  “I look forward to working with Dr. Mani and his colleagues in Malaysia to address this growing burden.”

To find out more about unintentional childhood injuries, contact us at
IIRU@jhsph.edu

Members of the Johns Hopkins International Injury Research Unit (JH-IIRU), including director, Adnan Hyder and associate director, Aruna Chandran, along with colleagues from Aga Khan University (AKU) in Pakistan, recently published a paper in the International Journal of Pediatrics.
The article, titled, “Childhood Unintentional Injuries: Need for a Community-Based Home Injury Risk Assessment in Pakistan,” addresses the dearth of printed materials about home injury prevention in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as compared to the availability of comparable information in  high income countries (HICs). The paper also examines the development of two tools for home hazard reduction: an in-home tutorial and an educational pamphlet in preparation for a proposed study, the Global Childhood Unintentional Injury Surveillance-Phase 2, Pakistan (GCUIS-Pak). The GCUIS-Pak would test the implementation and acceptability of the tools in two neighborhoods in Pakistan’s largest city, Karachi. 
Additionally, the GCUIS-Pak is part of ongoing collaborative efforts between the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health/International Injury Research Unit and Aga Khan University/Department of Emergency Medicine in Pakistan. In 2005, JHU-IIRU partnered with Aga Khan University in the development of a child injury surveillance project that resulted in the development of a system with great potential for developing countries, supported by the Department of Violence and Injury Prevention at the World Health Organization, Geneva (published in 2009 –
Hyder AA et al).  The program also hopes to raise awareness about the importance of child injury and trauma research and foster collaboration among health professionals and researchers in Pakistan, while establishing linkages and partnerships with the broader international injury research community.
To access the paper,
click here.
To find out more about the ICTIRT or other JH-IIRU collaborative efforts , contact us at
IIRU@jhsph.edu

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