The Center for Injury Research and Policy has selected Daesha Ramachadran, a PhD student in the Department of Population, Family, and Reproductive Health, and Lauren Waltersdorf, an MPH candidate, as the winners of the Native American Injury Prevention Competition. Each will receive $5,000 for use during the 2010-2011 academic year.
Daesha will conduct a study of teen perceptions of what is ‘normal’ or typical of relationships among American Indian teenagers, as well as where they get information about healthy relationships and seek help or advice. The ultimate objective is to reduce interpersonal violence in this population. Lauren will study the serious problem of motor vehicle-related deaths and injuries in young Native Americans. She hopes to identify differences among various tribes and identify policy interventions with the potential of reducing road deaths in this high-risk population.
While injuries are a major cause of death and disability in the United States, certain groups are more affected. For example, motor vehicle-related death rates of Native Americans are twice the rates for other Americans, and suicide rates among 15-24 year old Native Americans are more than double the U.S. average.
These powerful statistics are behind this new effort by the Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy to encourage the School’s public health students to undertake research projects on injuries to Native Americans or other indigenous people of the United States or Canada.
The hope is that their work will ultimately lead to needed policy and/or environmental changes that will reduce the burden of injury in the Native American population.
Two winners will receive $5,000 each to study injury in Native Americans
While injuries are a major cause of death and disability in the United States, certain groups are more affected. For example, motor vehicle-related death rates of Native Americans are twice the rates for other Americans, and suicide rates among 15-24 year old Native Americans are more than double the U.S. average.
These powerful statistics are behind a new effort by the Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy to encourage the School’s public health students to undertake research projects on injuries to Native Americans or other indigenous people of the United States or Canada. The hope is that their work will ultimately lead to needed policy and/or environmental changes that will reduce the burden of injury in the Native American population.
Specifically, two awards of $5,000 each will be granted for use during the 2010-11 academic year to degree candidates at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Examples of products of eligible proposed projects include MPH Capstone projects (or equivalent), proposal for a dissertation focused on injury in Native Americans, and/or a manuscript to be submitted for publication
Applications should be submitted (along with a CV and indication of department and degree program) prior to September 20, 2010 to Professor Susan P. Baker, firstname.lastname@example.org. A one-page description of the proposed research should include the specific injury problem or issue, its public health importance, general research and anticipated product (due 6/30/11).
The award money can be used for tuition, travel, conferences, data acquisition, computer or other expenses, or stipend. An approximate budget allocation should be included.
For further information or to discuss a possible project, feel free to contact:
Susan P. Baker, email@example.com
Inez Tenenbaum, MEd, JD, Chair of the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) recently visited the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and met with School officials, faculty and staff from the Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy, and MPH students. The visit was an opportunity for both institutions to share information and brainstorm ideas for collaboration. In addition to taking a personalized tour of the CARES mobile safety center, Tenenbaum delivered remarks on Pathways to Increased Public Health and Safety to almost one hundred students, staff and faculty.
“The Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy has a strong and successful history of preventing injuries that occur as a result of consumer products,” noted Andrea C. Gielen, ScM, ScD, director of the Center. “Hearing directly from the Chairman and her staff about their vision for consumer product safety in the U.S. allowed us to identify areas for future collaborations around our shared mission.” These opportunities include working together to increase awareness of the Commission’s current consumer education campaigns on pool safety and safe sleep, overseas training programs to ensure product safety, and opportunities for Hopkins masters' students to complete Capstone projects and other hands-on opportunities at CPSC, which is located in Bethesda, MD.
This last opportunity is of particular interest to Jon Vernick, MPH, JD, Deputy Director of the Injury Center: “Training the next generation of leaders is a priority for the Center, and I look forward to seeing our students get real world experiences in product safety research and practice.”
To see photos of Tenenbaum's tour of the CARES Mobile Safety Center and her visit to the School, please visit the Center’s Facebook page.
For more information on the CPSC, please click here.
A comprehensive new report in the spring issue of Contemporary Drug Problems examines the influence of alcohol marketing on youth, and includes case studies from around the world. The report is authored by David Jernigan, Ph.D., associate professor with the Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy and Director of the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth.
“From Asia to Latin America to Africa, the marketing of alcohol is pervasive and cuts across all types of media, including film, music and mobile phones,” said Jernigan. “Particularly among youth, who tend to be heavily influenced by their environment, the outcome is a greater likelihood that adolescents will initiate alcohol consumption.”
According to Jernigan, the solution must involve systematically monitoring alcohol marketing, particularly in developing countries, in addition to regulatory strategies. For example, the article cites a 2006 study that showed a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce the percentage of adolescents who drink monthly from 25% to between 24 and 21%, and the percentage who engage in binge drinking monthly from 12% to between 11 and 8%.
For more information on the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, please click here.
The Center for Injury Research and Policy at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health has named the Rebuild Program at Inova Fairfax Hospital in Falls Church, VA with the 2010 Community Hero Award in recognition of the program’s innovation and success in improving the lives of trauma survivors. During a ceremony and reception at the School, students, staff and faculty heard directly from Rebuild participants on how the program has positively impacted their lives.
Started by Anna Bradford, MSW, LCWS, the program is designed to support recovering trauma patients and their caregivers. It was the first comprehensive support program for trauma survivors and their families in the United Stares, and has since served as a model for similar programs across the country. The program currently offers five different support groups for patients recovering from general trauma, spinal cord injury or traumatic brain injury, in addition to patient-focused training for healthcare professionals to reinforce their vital role in the healing process. It is currently managed by Daniel Stanto, MSW, LCSW.
The Community Hero Award was created by the Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy to recognize distinguished injury prevention leaders and exemplary programs that contribute to improving safety in our communities. Past awardees include Carole Alexander, executive director of the House of Ruth of Maryland and Dr. Joshua Sharfstein, former commissioner of the Baltimore City Health Department.
A new study by Center faculty members Shannon Frattaroli and Keshia Pollack describes how using street outreach workers is an effective strategy to reach and engage youth with the goal of violence prevention and intervention. Street outreach workers are typically members of the community who intervene to prevent conflict and retaliation, and in some programs, also connect individuals with needed services, such as housing and job training.
While cities across the United States are utilizing street outreach workers as part of their violence prevention programs, including CeaseFire in Chicago and Safe Streets in Baltimore, this is the first peer-reviewed study on a program to be published. This is also the first evaluation of this type of program in a smaller community; the researchers studied the street outreach workers program run by the United Teen Equality Center in Lowell, Mass., a city of 105,167 residents north of Boston.
"These features should be considered both by communities with existing street outreach worker programs and by communities in the process of establishing one, as they have demonstrated importance for both program success and sustainability," said Shannon Frattaroli, PhD, MPH, assistant professor with the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health's Department of Health Policy and Management and the paper's lead author.
To access the complete press release, please click here.
Trauma center care not only saves lives, it is a cost-effective way of treating major trauma, according to a new report from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health’s Center for Injury Research and Policy. Although treatment at a trauma center is more expensive, the benefits of this approach in terms of lives saved and quality of life-years gained outweigh the costs. The study finds that the added cost of treatment at a trauma center versus nontrauma center is only $36,319 for every life-year gained or $790,931 per life saved. While previous studies have found trauma center care decreases one’s likelihood of dying following injury, this is the most comprehensive study to date to also measure cost-effectiveness. The results are published in the July issue of The Journal of Trauma Injury, Infection and Critical Care.
“In today’s economic and health care climates, it is critical to determine whether the benefits of expensive therapies warrant their higher costs,” said Ellen MacKenzie, PhD, the Fred and Julie Soper Professor & Chair of the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Bloomberg School of Public Health. “Taken together with our previous work demonstrating the effectiveness of trauma centers in saving lives, the results unequivocally support the need for continued efforts and funding for regionalized systems of trauma care in the United States.”
To access the complete press release, please click here.
New Research by Professor Susan Baker finds falls are the most common injury for both urban and rural elderly in China, responsible for more than two-thirds of all injuries in people 65 and older. This is the first study to uncover the leading causes of non-fatal injuries among older adults in China, who make up 9 percent of the total population. The report is available on the Website of the journal Injury Prevention.
“The identification of the most common locations and causes of injury is useful for the development of interventions and priorities,” said Susan P. Baker, MPH, professor with the Injury Center. “The results indicate the divorced and widowed elderly should be targeted as high-risk groups for injury. Prevention programs for all major causes of injury need to be developed as soon as possible in China.”
To access the complete press release, please click here.
A new article in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, “An Urgent Call to Action in Support of Injury Control Research Centers,” reports that funding disparities for research are enormous across health problems, with funding for injury, the third leading cause of death in the U.S., far out of proportion to the magnitude of the problem. For example, the Federally-funded Injury Control Research Center (ICRC) program, created in 1987 with a $10 million Congressional appropriation to support five Centers, now supports eleven Centers who receive less than $1 million annually to support their work. Using funding to the National Cancer Institute as the standard and calibrating based on total deaths, the researchers determined the actual figure should exceed $1.4 billion.
The report is co-authored by Center Director Andrea Gielen along with leaders from six other Injury Centers.
“Despite the meager support provided, Injury Centers have made substantial progress and discoveries over the past two decades, demonstrating their continuing potential to advance the science and practice of injury control,” said Dr. Gielen. “As evidenced in this paper, what’s urgently needed is increased investment to accelerate these discoveries and ensure our results impact communities.”
The article also includes select examples of research contributions by the ICRC program and presents four critical “Call to Actions” for Congress and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. These include: Cultivate investigator interest in injury control and further development of cutting-edge research through increased funding; Support training in the science of injury control; Launch a comprehensive national campaign to foster public support for eradication of injury as a health problem; and Support a comprehensive, multi-agency review to determine how best to fund basic, applied, and translational injury research.
The Lethality Assessment Program (LAP), a program developed by Center faculty members Daniel Webster and Jacquelyn Campbell along with law enforcement officials and members of social service agencies, has been selected as a semifinalist to receive the Mary Byron Project's Celebrating Solutions Award. The purpose of the LAP is to help first responders determine if domestic violence cases are at high risk for lethality and link them to community programs. As a semifinalist the program is in the top 20 of about 250 applications. Award winners ate expected to be announced in the fall.
Drs. Campbell and Webster also conducted the research that led to the program’s development. They found that only four percent of women killed by their abusers had ever received domestic violence program services, and that the risk of re-assault of women assessed to be in high danger was reduced by 60% if they went to a shelter. Dr. Webster is now evaluating the program’s impact on domestic violence in Maryland with Dr. Katherine Vittes, a research associate with the School’s Department of Health Policy and Management.
The Mary Byron Foundation is a public grant-making charity based in Louisville, Kentucky that honors groundbreaking efforts to stop domestic violence. The Foundation's Celebrating Solutions Award recognizes institutions that demonstrate an innovative approach to confronting the root causes of domestic violence and developing solutions to break the cycle. The Foundation is named in honor of a woman who was murdered by a former boyfriend in 1993. More information on the Foundation can be accessed here.
Keshia Pollack, MPH, PhD, assistant professor with the Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy, delivered a presentation on the relationship between injury prevention and obesity in young children during the June meeting of the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) Committee on Obesity Prevention Policies for Young Children. The committee is tasked with reviewing factors related to overweight and obesity in infants and young children, identifying gaps in knowledge, and making recommendations on early childhood obesity prevention policies. The purpose of the talk was to describe how injury relates to obesity risk, and make the case for why the Committee should consider injury prevention in addressing childhood obesity.
“Injury researchers and obesity researchers share the common goal of keeping people active and safe,” said Dr. Pollack. “While this approach of the two fields working together is somewhat new, we are fortunate to already have successful examples to learn from and model, such as the Safe Routes to Schools program which has been effective at getting more children to safely walk and bicycle to school.”
In closing, Dr. Pollack thanked the IOM committee for recognizing the opportunities for partnership between the two fields. “I look forward to continued collaborations with colleagues working to prevent and control childhood obesity. Together we can keep kids healthy and safe.”
More information on the IOM Committee can be accessed here.
Center faculty member David Jernigan contributed to efforts to secure the World Health Assembly’s recent adoption of a global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. As a result, health ministers from around the world will now try to curb binge drinking and other growing forms of excessive alcohol use through higher taxes on alcoholic drinks and tighter marketing regulations. Dr. Jernigan is on the Board of the Global Alcohol Policy Alliance, the principal global NGO that has been advocating for the strategy. He has also assisted in developing the evidence base for the strategy, dating back to the late 1990s when he was the principal author of WHO's first Global Status Report on Alcohol. In his addition to his role with the Johns Hopkins Injury Center, Jernigan is director of the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
To access the global strategy document, please click here.
Ellen MacKenzie, PhD, the Fred and Julie Soper Professor and Chair of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health’s Department of Health Policy and Management, was named a recipient of the 2010 Diversity Recognition Award by the Johns Hopkins Diversity Leadership Council. The award celebrates individuals and groups who have made significant contributions in advancing and celebrating diversity and inclusiveness within the University.
Nominated by the Bloomberg School’s Dean, Michael J. Klag, MD, MPH, MacKenzie was awarded for her efforts to ensure and promote diversity within the department of Health Policy and Management and for serving as a role model to women faculty, staff and students. The award was presented at a ceremony and reception on May 18 in the Shriver Hall Auditorium.
“The steps taken by the Diversity Leadership Council to promote diversity have been tremendous and beneficial to all University faculty, staff and students,” said MacKenzie. “It is an honor to be named a 2010 recipient of the Diversity Recognition Award and I am grateful to my many colleagues at the Bloomberg School who have supported me throughout my career and continue to assist me in celebrating and promoting diversity.”
Susan P. Baker, M.P.H., Sc.D. (Hon.), has been named the recipient of the 2010 Harry G. Moseley Award for her pioneering work applying the public health model to aviation safety research and training. Established in recognition of the contributions of Col. Harry G. Moseley to flight safety and sponsored by Lockheed Martin, the award was presented to Professor Baker during the Aerospace Medical Association’s 81st Annual Scientific Meeting on May 13th in Phoenix, AZ.
Prof. Baker’s research has led to a better understanding of the determinants of occupant survival in aviation crashes, the etiology of pilot error, and the relationship between pilot aging and safety performance. Her research has included crashes related to mountain flying, instructional flights, commuter flights, and air medical transport. Much of her teaching and research is designed to influence the legislators, administrators, media representatives, and others whose decisions can determine the likelihood of injury for thousands of people.
“More than one thousand patients are admitted to U.S. hospitals with aviation-related injuries annually and 750 aviation related deaths occur each year, making aviation injuries a public health problem worthy of investigation,” said Professor Baker. “I want to extend my sincere gratitude to the Aerospace Medical Association for their recognition of the importance of applying a public health model to studying aviation safety research and training.”
More information on the Aerospace Medical Association can be found here.
Center faculty member David Bishai, MD, PHD, is the author of a new study on burn and fire injuries published in the May/June issue of Public Health Reports. Bishai and colleague Sunmin Lee looked at the impact of age by race/ethnicity to identify disparities in burn and fire injuries from age 1 to 90, and found that compared with non-Hispanic white people, Native Americans and African Americans older than 55 years of age experienced a higher risk of death from fires and burns. The rate ratio of burn/fire deaths of African Americans compared with white people was 3.14 for those aged 55 years and older. The corresponding rate ratio for Native Americans compared with white people was 1.93 for those aged 55 years and older.
“Heightened fire risks for minority seniors require broad attention and the development of effective interventions,” said Bishai, an associate professor with the Injury Center. “Additionally, further investigation is needed to unveil the causes of the higher rates of burn and fire deaths faced by African American and Native American seniors.”
To access graphs on trends in injury, including from fire, please click here.
Center faculty were well-represented among the presenters at the annual meeting of the Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) held April 7-10 in Seattle, Washington. SBM is a multidisciplinary organization of clinicians, educators, and scientists dedicated to promoting the study of the interactions of behavior with biology and the environment, and the application of that knowledge to improve the health and well being of individuals, families, communities and populations.
“Innovating Prevention From Research to Practice: The CARES Mobile Safety Center” (Eileen McDonald, Shannon Frattaroli, Wendy Shields,? and Andrea Gielen) reported results of faculty’s work comparing the ability of the CARES mobile safety center?to disseminate products and information at a medical practice versus community settings. The results indicate visitors to CARES report high levels of satisfaction: 98% said they would refer a friend. Qualitative and quantitative differences emerged across the two settings which the researchers will explore in greater detail.
Faculty members Wendy Shields, Eileen McDonald and Andrea Gielen also presented research on a health literacy study. “Physician Communication With Parents At Risk for Low Literacy” explores the use of difficult terms and concepts as part of well childcare in an urban pediatric clinic. They found that in 55% of visits, physicians used words and concepts deemed difficult for low literacy populations, and in the majority (77%) of these instances, the phrase or concept was used without further explanation.
And finally, in “What Happens After IPV Screening? Opportunities for Health Care Provider Intervention with Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence,” faculty Center Director Andrea Gielen along with Pate Mahoney,?doctoral candidate Samantha Illangasekare and colleagues from George Washington University and University of Pittsburgh, reported the results of a pilot study testing a stage based counseling program’s utility for meeting the needs of women experiencing IPV. The study’s results were promising in terms of improving women’s reported quality of life and experience of violence.
The next annual meeting of SBM will take place in Washington, DC. For more information, please click here: http://www.sbm.org/meetings/
On April 14th, Center Director Andrea Gielen addressed University of North Carolina students, faculty and staff during the annual Patricia F. Waller lecture, held in memory of Patricia Fossum Waller, PhD, a UNC professor who worked for nearly two decades as a researcher at the UNC Highway Safety Research Center, where she developed the concept for graduated licensing that would become adopted nationwide. The lectureship is sponsored by UNC’s Injury Prevention Research Center, the Highway Safety Research Center, and the Department of Psychology.
Dr. Gielen’s talk, “Pediatric Injury Prevention: From the Trenches to the Ivory Tower and Back Again,” provided an ?overview of the epidemiology of childhood injury in the U.S., along with a short history of research accomplishments in the field. She provided examples of community partnered ?and translation research projects carried out by the Center, with a special emphasis on what the Center is doing to address childhood injuries in Baltimore.
The video of Dr. Gielen’s presentation along with a copy of her slides can be found here.?
Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health today announced that it will award the highest prize in public health – the Frank A. Calderone Prize – to Susan P. Baker, whose extraordinary career spanning close to five decades has been instrumental in bringing the prevention of injuries to the forefront of public health and public policy.
The Frank A. Calderone Prize in Public Health, the preeminent award in the field, is overseen by the Mailman School of Public Health and presented to an individual who has made a transformational contribution in the field of public health. The Prize recognizes an individual who has accomplished extraordinary distinction in public health and/or who has made a specific contribution which has had long-term national or global implications. This is the first time the Prize has been bestowed upon an injury control researcher.
"Sue Baker is a true pioneer," said Mailman School Dean Fried. "She not only created a new field of academic inquiry in public health; she ensured that her research would have practical application and underpin a transformation in public policy. The Mailman School is proud to bestow the Calderone Prize on Professor Baker."
"I am truly honored by this extraordinary recognition," said Professor Baker. "When I started in this field many years ago, injury was hardly considered a public health issue, despite being one of the leading causes of death and disability. I feel very fortunate to have had so many opportunities to build a career in injury prevention, to train so many outstanding injury professionals, and to have been able to influence real policy changes to save lives. While we have collectively come so far, there is more work to be done. That is why I hope this Prize will now draw even more attention to the burden of injury, and encourage more young leaders to enter the field."
Professor Baker will accept the Calderone Prize on May 6, 2010 and give a major and original address at the Mailman School.
To access the complete press release, please click here.
Keshia Pollack, MPH, PhD, an assistant professor with the Center for Injury Research and Policy, is a recipient of a Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2010 Innovation Fund award, sponsored by the Department of Health Policy and Management. Dr. Pollack’s proposed research will examine how policymakers perceive health impact assessments (HIAs), how and if HIAs are used by policymakers, and the best ways to disseminate HIA findings to policymakers so they are included in the policymaking process. The use of HIAs is gaining momentum within the U.S. public health community as a powerful instrument with the potential to inform health planning and policymaking, however little research exists on policymaker’s perceptions towards HIAs, or the best ways to disseminate HIA findings to policymakers.
“In order for public health outcomes to play a greater role in policymaker’s decisions, more research is needed to determine policymaker’s perspectives on HIA’s,” said Pollack. “I want to extend my sincere gratitude to the Department for recognizing this as an area worthy of study, and I look forward to commencing my work.”
For more information on the Faculty Innovation Fund, please click here.
Translating knowledge from research findings into practice and policy is critical to reducing the injury burden, and researchers are well-positioned for this challenge, according to the new From SAVIR column published in Injury Prevention. This article is authored by faculty and staff at the Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy and is available at the journal’s website.?
The article makes the case for the value in injury researchers and policymakers working together, and cites two examples of how the Hopkins Injury Center effectively reduced the chasm that often exists between researchers and policymakers. One example, Preventing Injuries in Maryland: A Resource for State Policy Makers,?was developed in advance of the 2010 Maryland General Assembly ?and offers policy makers and stakeholders easily accessible and understandable information on specific injury problems in Maryland. ?Evidence-based policy solutions for each injury problem included in the Resource are also provided. ?
“Policymakers want to know what solutions exist for public health problems. As researchers, we can address this need and connect policy makers with those evidence-based policy solutions proven to prevent injury,” said lead study author Keshia Pollack, an assistant professor with the Injury Center. “As we become more engaged and involved in translating our work for policy makers, we need to remain mindful of the importance of sharing these experiences with each other. By doing so, we can expand the knowledge base necessary to accelerate the dissemination and uptake of proven effective injury countermeasures.
To learn more about what SAVIR is doing to disseminate best knowledge translation practices, please email the SAVIR Advocacy committee.
New research from Center Professor Susan P. Baker finds that the risk of dying from injuries is increasing for Americans ages 65 and older. The report found significant increases in death rates from falls (42 percent increase), machinery (46 percent increase), motorcycle crashes (145 percent increase) and unintentional poisoning (34 percent increase). The results are published in the February issue of Injury Prevention and are available online at the journal’s website.
“Our findings reveal significant increases in death rates from several different injury causes,” said Professor Baker. “While the overall change in injury mortality among persons 65 and older was small, this study identifies important causes worthy of further investigation.”
To access the complete press release, please click here.
Along with colleagues from the Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy, Dr. Ellen MacKenzie, professor with the Center and the Fred and Julie Soper Professor and Chair of the Bloomberg School’s Department of Health Policy and Management, has been awarded $18.4 million by the Orthopaedic Extremity Trauma Research Program (OETRP) of the U.S. Department of Defense to establish an Extremity Trauma Clinical Research Consortium.
Termed METRC, the Major Extremity Trauma Research Consortium consists of a network of clinical centers and one data-coordinating center (housed in the Injury Center) that will work together with the U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research (USAISR) to conduct multi-center clinical research relevant to the treatment and outcomes of orthopaedic trauma sustained in the military. ?
The overall goal of the Consortium is to produce the evidence needed to establish treatment guidelines for the optimal care of the wounded warrior and ultimately improve the clinical, functional and quality of life outcomes of both service members and civilians who sustain high energy trauma to the extremities.
“The need for such a consortium is evident,” said Dr. MacKenzie. “Eighty-two percent of all service members injured in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom sustain extremity trauma. Many sustain injuries to multiple limbs. The research to be conducted by the Consortium will help us better understand what works and what doesn’t in treating these injuries and ensure that our service members are provided with the best care possible.”
For more information on METRC, please see their website at metric.org.
Beginning on March 1, Baltimore City will require carbon monoxide (CO) detectors to be installed in residential dwellings, hotels and buildings used for living or sleeping. Today, the Center joined officials from the Baltimore City Health and Fire officials?to warn residents of the health dangers of CO poisoning, to share prevention tips and to urge compliance with the new law. Since 2000, more than 25 people have died in Baltimore City as a result of CO poisoning.
“Like many injuries that occur in the home, CO poisoning can be prevented," said Eileen McDonald, MS, director of The Johns Hopkins Children’s Safety Centers. "By installing a CO alarm in the hallway near every separate sleeping area of their home, people can keep themselves safe.”
To speed the conversion of city homes into safer residences, Kidde, a leading manufacturer of residential fire safety products, has donated 250 free CO alarms that will be distributed to City residents who demonstrate financial need. The devices will be available on a first-come, first-serve basis at Johns Hopkins Children’s Safety Center, located inside Children’s Admitting. The center is open Monday – Friday from 11:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.; the phone number is (410) 614-5587.
A new study authored by Center faculty member Keshia Pollack?reports that 66 percent of respondents to a Maryland telephone survey do not have advance medical directives. Younger adults and blacks were less likely than older adults and whites, respectively, to report having an advance directive, which includes the living will and health care power of attorney. The results will be published in an upcoming issue of Health Policy and are available online at the journal’s website
“Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death for young people in the U.S., scenarios in which an AD or health care proxy would be particularly beneficial,” said Dr. Pollack, an assistant professor with the Injury Center. The study found the primary reasons reported for not having an advance directive include being unfamiliar with them, feeling too healthy to need one, or, for the younger adults, being too young to need one.
To access the complete press release, please click here.
Keshia Pollack, MPH, PhD, assistant professor with the Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy, was a featured speaker at One Less Car’s 13th Annual Smart Transportation and Bicycle Symposium, held February 3rd in Annapolis, MD. One Less Car is Maryland’s statewide advocacy voice for promoting safe and accessible biking, walking, transit and carpooling as alternatives to cars.
Speaking in front of several hundred advocates, planners, state and local officials, and community leaders brought together by a common desire for more bike lanes, better sidewalks, more trails, and a statewide Complete Streets policy, Dr. Pollack discussed how the design and construction of our transportation systems have a profound impact on the public’s health.? She described the inextricable link between transportation and health, highlighting pedestrian-related injuries, physical activity and obesity, and disparities, as well as stressed the importance of partnerships and collaborations to ensure transportation and public health are considered together.?
For more information on the Symposium, please click here.
Identifying the public health and safety needs of children from low-income communities may be accomplished through art, according to a study by researchers from the Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy and University of Pittsburgh. Their paper, published in the current online issue of Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education and Action, describes the success of Visual Voices, an arts-based program that engages community members as partners in research.?
The study was based on Visual Voices programs conducted with 22 children ages 8 to 15 in two low-income and predominantly African-American communities in Baltimore and Pittsburgh. During the Visual Voices sessions, participants created paintings and drawings to share their perceptions, both positive and negative, of community safety and violence, and their hopes for the future. Afterward, they combined their individual art projects into two “visual voice” exhibits.? Pieces of the artwork are currently on display at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
?Andrea Gielen, ScM, ScD, director of the Center for Injury Research and Policy, and colleagues from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine used qualitative research methods to review and code the participants’ art projects for themes.? Factors that participants identified as important to safety included school and social networks—family, friends and the local community. Places that they identified as unsafe were corner stores, streets and alleys with poor lighting and abandoned houses. Other contextual factors identified as unsafe were drugs, guns and violence, smoking, drinking and gambling.
“This project allowed us to hear directly from Baltimore children about issues in their communities that concern them, including neighborhood safety and violence,” said Gielen. “Garnering this type of information is instrumental to developing public health programs and interventions that are appropriate for specific communities.”
A new Center publication, “Preventing Injuries in Maryland: A Resource for State Policy Makers” is now available for download. The Resource is designed to provide Maryland policy makers, advocacy groups, members of the media, researchers and the general public with easily accessible and understandable information on specific injury problems in Maryland, and offer solutions on how they can be addressed through policy decisions.
“This Resource allows us to deliver on our mission of closing the gap between research and policy to reduce the burden of injury,” said Andrea Gielen, ScM, ScD, director of the Center for Injury Research and Policy. “We already know that many of the issues covered in the book, such as distracted driving and alcohol and injuries, are likely to be key issues in the 2010 Maryland General Assembly. I look forward to seeing its impact and contribution to the field of knowledge translation.”
For more information on the Resource, and to access an electronic copy, please click here.
A new study co-authored by Susan Baker, MPH, professor with the Injury Center, finds the death rate from injuries in rural areas of China is higher than in urban areas. Rural males of all ages were 47 percent more likely to die from injuries than urban males, and the overall rate in rural females was 33 percent higher than in urban females. For babies under one year of age, unintentional suffocation was the most important source of the total urban-rural disparity, whereas drowning was the great contributor to disparity among children ages 1 to 4 years. At the other end of the age spectrum, suicide accounted for the bulk of the disparity for both men and women. The report is published in the winter 2010 issue of The Journal of Rural Health.
“As good policy decisions rely on the availability of good data, the objective of this study was to provide information on urban-rural disparities in injury mortality in China, so as to offer a basis for governmental decisions related to injury interventions,” said Professor Baker. “The findings should be used to set priorities for reducing the high rate of fatal injuries in rural China.”
To access the complete press release, please click here.
A new paper authored by Center alumnus Michael Yonas and Center Director Andrea Gielen provides insight into the often overlooked capacity present within neighborhoods, such as innovative collaborations and public outreach with youth, neighbors, administrative and law enforcement services.
The study researchers collected qualitative data regarding the perceptions of local social networks and efforts to address youth violence through the use of in-depth interviews with prominent neighborhood individuals in low SES communities throughout Baltimore
Individuals living in “high-risk” neighborhoods (neighborhoods that score higher on rates of juvenile violence, unemployment, adult violence, and lower on rates of education and home ownership) were less likely to be engaged in neighborhood-level violence prevention efforts, and more likely to feel that addressing young people directly increases their chances of becoming a target of retribution, compared with individuals in “lower-risk” neighborhoods.? The paper is published in the January 2010 issue of Health Promotion Practice.
“The health impact of youth violence in the U.S. is extensive and devastating,” said Andrea Gielen, ScM, ScD, professor with and director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy. “Engaging individuals living in neighborhoods classified as high-risk provides unique insight and understanding of the perceptions and dynamics associated with local violence prevention efforts,” added Michael A. Yonas, DrPH, MPH, now with the University of Pittsburgh. ?“Our findings suggest and advocate for the need of public health researchers and practitioners to engage neighborhood individuals as partners in efforts to address and prevent urban youth violence.”
The first ever published study of aviation-related injuries and deaths in the U.S. finds that on average,1013 patients are admitted to U.S. hospitals with aviation-related injuries annually, and that an average of 753 aviation-deaths occur each year. The study, conducted by researchers from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health’s Center for Injury Research and Policy and Columbia University, also reports that the largest categories of patients were occupants of civilian, noncommercial powered aircraft (32 percent) and parachutists (29 percent). For aircraft occupants as well as parachutists, lower limb fractures were the most common injury, encompassing 27 percent of all hospitalized injuries. While burns were seen in only 2.5 percent of patients, they were responsible for 13 percent of deaths. The report is published in the December issue of Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine.
“Our findings provide valuable information, not previously available, on the number and kinds of injuries sustained in aviation-related events,” said lead author Susan P. Baker, professor with the Injury Center. “Because many injuries can be prevented through changes in the structure of aircraft, these data should be used to recognize needed improvements in aircraft design. For example, the high numbers of lower limb fractures suggest modifications should be considered to the various structures likely to be contacted by the feet and legs when a crash occurs.”
To access the complete press release, please click here.?
The work of researchers from the Center for Injury Research and Policy will be recognized at the 137th annual meeting of the American Public Health Association (APHA) Nov 7-11 in Philadelphia, PA. The APHA annual meeting is considered the premier public health educational forum, attracting more than 13,000 national and international physicians, administrators, nurses, educators, researchers, epidemiologists, and related health specialists.
Jon Vernick, MPH, JD, assistant professor and co-director of the Injury Center, will be presenting at two cross-cutting sessions, one devoted to how the legal issue of preemption affects policy across various public health issues, and the other on environmental approaches to prevention policy. In both sessions Vernick will be presenting the firearms perspective.
Vanya Jones, PhD, assistant scientist with the Center, is an author on an oral presentation on violence prevention in youth, “Barriers and opportunities to school-based parent involvement: Implications for adolescent violence prevention.”
Research conducted by Keshia Pollack, MPH, PhD, assistant professor with the Center, and colleagues on how Employee Assistance Programs address intimate partner violence (“Employee Assistance Programs and efforts to address intimate partner violence”) will be presented during a poster session.
And finally, Kira McGroarty, MPH, project director of the CARES Mobile Safety Center?will be the moderator of an oral session, “Award winning health education and promotion materials.” In this session, individuals recognized for outstanding health education materials will present an overview of the health issue, theory, target population, development, implementation, and evaluation of their health material. McGroarty will also be presenting an overview of the development and implementation of the CARES Safety Center at the annual meeting of the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) in Philadelphia November 5-7, held each year in conjunction with the APHA meeting.
Center Director Andrea Gielen, ScM, ScD, has been elected President-elect of the Society for the Advancement of Violence and Injury Research (SAVIR). ?Established in 2005, SAVIR is a professional association of injury researchers with a mission to promote scholarly activity in the prevention, control, acute care, and rehabilitation of intentional and unintentional injury (www.savirweb.org). ?
?“I am honored to be chosen, and extend my sincere gratitude to the nomination committee,” said Dr. Gielen. “As a relatively young organization, we offer great opportunities for member involvement in shaping our future. I would like to encourage both new and seasoned injury professionals to join us in our efforts to promote research and collaboration with practitioners and policymakers to bridge the research – practice gap and reduce the burden of injury.”
In addition to Dr. Gielen, the SAVIR Board of Directors includes Center faculty Shannon Frattaroli, MPH, PhD, who will be coordinating a new contract from the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC) awarded to SAVIR. ?Last year, Dr. Frattaroli served as the Chair of the Injury Conference Programs Committee and was awarded SAVIR’s President’s Award for her contributions to the successful national conference. This year’s initiative with the NCIPC will engage SAVIR members in promoting the national injury research agenda. “The contract from NCIPC is a great example of how injury researchers can organize to demonstrate the need for and value of our work,” said Dr. Frattaroli.? “We are thrilled to be working with NCIPC on such an important initiative.”
The Center will also host SAVIR’s bi-annual national research conference in 2013 in Baltimore.?
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and the Center for Injury Research and Policy at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH) announced a joint project titled Strengthening the Impact of Fire and Life Safety Messages on Children. The goal is to determine the best way to communicate fire safety messages to children ages 3-9. This is the first time the groups have worked together to enhance fire safety education. The project is made possible by funding from FEMA’s Grant Programs Directorate, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, AFG Fire Prevention and Safety Grants.
“The outcomes of this study will contribute to understanding how children and their parents react to safety messages,” said Andrea Gielen, ScM, ScD, director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy. “Despite the fact that injuries are the number one cause of death for children in the U.S., little is currently known about how best to reach them with safety information.” Each year approximately 290 children ages 3-9 die as a result of fire in the U.S.
To access the press release, please click here.
The Center for Injury Research and Policy is a co-sponsor of an October 6th symposium at Johns Hopkins University on underage drinking, “Reducing Drinking on College Campuses: Where to From Here?” The purpose is to bring together college administrators, community leaders, policy makers, students and faculty to discuss how to reduce the harmful use of alcohol on college campuses in Baltimore.
“It’s estimated that each year 1,825 college students die from alcohol-related injuries, all of which could have been prevented,” said David Jernigan, MA, PhD, associate professor with the Injury Center and executive director of the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. “By highlighting issues surrounding the use of alcohol on campuses and the existing evidence-based methods to address them, we will be well-positioned to identify the steps necessary to prevent future alcohol-related deaths and injuries among Baltimore’s college students.”
Continuing its work reaching policymakers and their staffs with the message that injury prevention can save lives and money, each member of Congress received a packet of injury prevention materials on Monday, including a cover letter, a copy of the Roll Call ad, a fact sheet?on injury prevention and health care reform, and the accompanying press release. The ad was signed by Andrea Gielen, director of the Center, on behalf of 21?different research universities, professional organizations and advocacy groups all committed to injury prevention.
“Health care reform represents an unprecedented opportunity for reducing the burden of injuries,” said Dr. Gielen. “This is why it’s absolutely critical policy makers understand that by incorporating injury prevention into health care reform, lives and money will be saved.”
A new paper co-authored by Center faculty member Susan P. Baker finds that mandatory alcohol testing programs for truck and bus drivers have contributed to a significant reduction in alcohol involvement in fatal crashes. The work was done in collaboration with researchers at the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University in New York.
Based on a study sample of nearly 70,000 motor carrier (heavy trucks and buses) drivers and over 83,000 non–motor-carrier (car) drivers, the estimated net effect attributed to the mandatory alcohol testing programs for drivers of heavy trucks and buses was a 23% reduced risk of alcohol involvement in fatal crashes. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate the Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991, which made alcohol testing mandatory for transportation employees with safety sensitive functions. ?
Findings from the study are published online in the American Journal of Epidemiology.?
The Center for Injury Research and Policy is among a large coalition of research universities, professional organizations and advocacy groups that have joined together to urge Congress to include injury prevention in health care reform. ?To reach ?policymakers and their staffs with the message that research based injury prevention can save lives and money, the group is running an ad ?in the September 8th ?“Health Care Hits the Road” theme issue of Roll Call,?the newspaper of Capitol Hill. ?It is the first time these groups have come together to educate policymakers on the significant burden injuries pose to the health care system.
To access the full press release, please click here. To see a copy of the ad, access links to the partner organizations, and learn specific examples of how to include injury prevention in health care reform, please click here.?
A new paper authored by Susan P. Baker, MPH, a professor with the Injury Center, finds deaths from unintentional injuries are increasing among many groups, with a?threefold risk in poisoning among middle-age white women. The study also found the death rate from falls increased 38 percent for white men and 48 percent for white women 65 and older.
“The large increases in the number of deaths attributable to poisoning and falls underscore the need for more research on the specific circumstances involved,” said Professor Baker. “While we don’t know the cause behind the recent increase in falls mortality, it appears that the increase in poisonings is largely due to prescription drugs. National prevention efforts are needed to control the abuse of prescription drugs and limit access.”
Please click here to access the full article.?
A link to the press release can be found here.
An Op-Ed authored by Center director Andrea Gielen and Alicia Samuels, the director of communications for the Center, has been published in the Health Care Blog, one of the most well-read blogs on health care. The piece uses the recent falls of Hillary Clinton, Pope Benedict XVI, Barbara Mikulski and Sonia Sotomayor to highlight the public health burden of falls, and makes the case for incorporating fall prevention strategies into health care reform.
“Despite the recent falls of these very high profile leaders, we weren’t seeing anything written on the public health burden of falls or injuries. Similarly, the lack of attention to falls and other injuries in health care reform is alarming. Our hope is that this Op-Ed will raise awareness among the general public and lawmakers of the prevalence of falls, particularly among the elderly, and urge them to press for solutions we know exist.”
Please click here to access the article.
On August 2, the CARES Mobile Safety Center was featured at the Israel Baptist Church’s Community Festival in East Baltimore. One of the event organizers learned of the Safety Center through a PSA that aired on the Heaven 600 radio station. WBFF, the local Fox affiliate, attended the event and showcased CARES during their evening newscast.
In July, the Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy, which runs the Safety Center in partnership with the Baltimore City Fire Department, launched a city-wide advertising campaign using radio, bus shelter and billboard ads to increase awareness of the van’s availability for local events.
“We’re very pleased with the response to the ads we’ve received from the community,” said Kira McGroarty, MPH, project director for the CARES Safety Center. “We will continue to conduct community outreach to ensure Baltimore City residents are aware of resources to help prevent injuries in the home.”
Current operating costs for the safety center are covered through a generous three-year grant from CareFirst BlueCross BlueShield. Since receiving funding from CareFirst BlueCross BlueShield in January 2008, approximately 4,800 individuals in Baltimore have visited the safety center.
The Johns Hopkins?Center for Injury Research and Policy is one of? four injury control research centers (ICRC) nationwide selected for funding by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (CDC’s Injury Center). Injury Control Research Centers conduct research in all three core phases of injury control (prevention, acute care, and rehabilitation) and serve as training centers as well as information centers for the public and health professionals. The Hopkins Center was one of the first centers for excellence in injury research funded by the CDC and has been in existence since 1987. The work of the Hopkins Injury Center spans the spectrum of unintentional and intentional injury across the lifespan and across the globe, with a strong focus on translation research as well as education and outreach to promote effective programs and policies.
“We are thrilled our 5-year competitive renewal was chosen for funding,” said Andrea Gielen, ScD, ScM,?Director of the Injury Center.? “The funding will allow us to continue our lifesaving work bridging the gap between injury-related research and practice locally, nationally and internationally. On behalf of everyone at the Injury Center, I would like to thank CDC for their continued support.” The center was awarded $4.87 million over 5 years.
Dr. Ileana Arias, Director of the CDC’s Injury Center added “Connecting research to communities is a primary focus for CDC and we are pleased to announce the new ICRCs, as well as those renewed. I consider each to be a part of this critical research network. Their work will fill a critical gap and can help shape a better understanding of how to improve the lives of those affected to help them live to their full potential.”
In addition to Johns Hopkins, the University of North Carolina was renewed.? The two newly designated ICRCs are Brown Center for Violence and Injury Prevention, Washington University, St Louis, MO and Emory Center for Injury Control, Emory University, Atlanta, GA. Each will be funded for five years.
For more information on the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, please click here.
On Friday, June 26th, the Baltimore City Health Department, Baltimore City Fire Department, and the Center for Injury Research and Policy hosted a press conference at the Oldetown Fire Station to raise awareness of childhood injuries. Along with Kira McGroarty, MPH, project director for the CARES Mobile Safety Center, the panel shared helpful tips for preventing accidents in the home, lead poisoning education and fire prevention strategies. The press release can be accessed here.?Several Baltimore outlets covered the event, including the Baltimore Sun.
In partnership with CareFirst BlueCross Blue Shield and the Baltimore City Fire Department, the Injury Center has launched a city-wide advertising campaign to raise awareness of the Johns Hopkins Children ARE Safe (CARES) Mobile Safety Center. Radio and billboard ads will spread the message that the safety center is available to visit community and neighborhood events to provide free, personalized injury prevention education and low-cost safety products. The ad campaign is scheduled to run for 4 weeks and is the first time the groups have used radio and billboards to promote this unique community resource. Because injuries disproportionally affect low-income families, the ads will be concentrated in neighborhoods with high poverty.
“The generous grant from CareFirst BlueCross BlueShield, which supports our mobile safety center and these outreach activities, allows us to make Baltimore City residents aware that? resources are available to communities throughout the city to help prevent injuries,” said Andrea C. Gielen, ScD, ScM, director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy. “While injuries are the number one cause of death in childhood through early adulthood, we know that many could be prevented by better access to life saving safety products and effective injury prevention education.”
To see the complete press release, please click here.
A new paper authored by Center faculty member Sue Baker, MPH finds that an emergency rule intended to reduce the number of deaths and injuries associated with Hawaiian air tours was followed by a 47 percent reduction in sightseeing crashes. However, the proportion of crashes that resulted in lives lost actually increased after the rule change due to an increase in crashes that resulted from poor visibility, which tend to be exceptionally fatal. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issued Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) 71 in 1994 in response to a spate of crashes of helicopter sightseeing tours that year. The regulation established minimum flight altitudes and clearances from terrain, emphasized passenger safety precautions, mandated performance plans prior to each flight, and required flotation equipment or the wearing of life preservers on flights beyond the shoreline.
“Our data suggest the FAA should reconsider the Rule’s clause that established a minimum flying altitude of fifteen hundred feet, as we know higher altitudes are associated with more cloud cover,” said Professor Susan P. Baker, director of the study’s research and professor with the Injury Center. Clouds obscuring mountain peaks and passes are particularly common in Hawaii. The report is published in the July issue of Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine.
For the complete press release, please click here.
The Johns Hopkins Children's Safety Center, along with center staff member Stephanie Parsons, was featured prominently in WMAR TV’s recent segment on car seat safety. WMAR is the ABC affiliate in Baltimore. Stephanie, a health educator and certified child passenger safety technician, conducted three different car seat inspections on camera and informed viewers on the importance of having their car seats installed and inspected by a professional. The story’s online component?directs viewers to the Center’s Website for more information on car seat inspections. ?To watch the video, please click here.
Physical activity in children is often encouraged without first measuring the risk for injury and implementing strategies to reduce those risks, according to a new essay published in Preventing Chronic Disease?authored by Keshia Pollack, PhD, MPH, an assistant professor with the Injury Center. While many studies have highlighted the benefits of physical activity for youth, little attention has been paid to the importance of preventing injuries during physical activity.
?“As interventions are developed to increase physical activity among children by promoting the use of playgrounds, bicycles, and participation in sports, information about preventing injuries during these activities is scarce,” said Dr. Pollack. “This is alarming because injuries are a reason that people stop participating in physical activity.” The paper reports that parents often cite both traffic safety concerns and crime as reasons for their children not walking to school and participating in outdoor activity. ?
To Pollack, the situation represents an opportunity for injury prevention and childhood obesity professionals. “Both fields share a common goal of improving health, and public health programs to improve child health should therefore be coordinated. By teaming together, we will pave the way for new partnerships, stretch scarce public health resources, and tackle these serious public health threats facing our nation’s children.”
While policies to prevent and control injury can benefit from the knowledge and expertise of researchers, direct and regular communication between researchers and legislators is uncommon. A new paper published in Injury Prevention co-authored by Center researchers Keshia Pollack, PhD, MPH and Shannon Frattaroli, PhD, MPH describes their innovative work volunteering as staff for Maryland Delegate Dan Morhaim during the 2008 legislative session, in which they made significant contributions to formulating injury prevention legislation. The paper highlights their roles in the deliberative processes surrounding two legislative proposals- one concerned with all-terrain vehicle (ATV) safety and the other with child passenger seat requirements.
“Throughout our experiences with the legislature, we interacted with the lead sponsors of the bills, communicated the most current and rigorous research to them, attended Committee hearings, and provided testimony,” said Dr. Pollack, an assistant professor with the Injury Center. “In this way, we were able to ensure research discoveries are shared and realized by the people whose lives will be improved through injury prevention policies.”
Explaining their role in the child passenger safety seat bill (SB 789/HB1312)), the researchers described how their testimony focused on 5 key points: the strong empirical evidence supporting booster seat effectiveness, the recommendations of several national organizations, Maryland’s low rate of booster seat use and the role of legislation in increasing compliance, the ability of parents to understand the (then) current guidelines, and how the proposed law would allow the state to compete for new federal funds. “It was extremely gratifying that despite a last-minute effort by opponents to weaken the bill, the science ultimately prevailed,” said Dr. Frattaroli, also an assistant professor with the Injury Center. “When we as researchers are able to move the science into the policy arena, lives can be saved and the true potential of the field of injury prevention can be realized.”
The paper also includes strategies to encourage researchers to engage in more direct roles in the policymaking process, such as the need for institutions to assess the contributions that researchers make to the policy process, and to include those metrics as part of the promotion process. To access the complete article, please click here.
A new report by researchers from the Center for Injury Research and Policy finds that media ignore the health consequences of drinking and driving among young celebrities. Center researchers analyzed news coverage following the drinking and driving (DUI) arrests of celebrities—Paris Hilton, Nicole Ritchie, Michelle Rodriguez and Lindsay Lohan—and found that only 4 percent of the reports made any mention of injury or potential injury from the DUI events. In 2005, alcohol-related crashes resulted in 16,885 deaths in the U.S. “Media are an important source of information about the consequences of alcohol consumption, and influence how individuals define acceptable behavior,” said Katherine Smith, PhD, lead author of the study and assistant professor with the Bloomberg School’s Department of Health, Behavior and Society and Center for Injury Research and Policy. “While the celebrity DUI stories raised awareness of the issue of drinking and driving among young people, an opportunity to educate this audience on solutions to prevent DUI was missed.” The results of the study will be published in the May 2009 issue of Alcohol and Alcoholism and are available on the journal’s website?in advance of the print publication.
To view the complete press release, please click here.
New research from the Center for Injury Research and Policy finds that mobile safety centers are effective tools for reaching families with lifesaving injury prevention education and safety products. While mobile vans are frequently used for providing asthma and dental health information and services in urban communities, this is the first study to document the benefits of mobile units for injury prevention services.
Andrea Gielen, ScD, director of the Center, along with her colleagues, analyzed data collected between 2004-2006 from individuals who visited the Johns Hopkins CARES (Children ARE Safe- Mobile Safety Center,) a partnership program with the Baltimore City Fire Department and other local organizations. Among study participants, 96 percent reported learning something new as a result of their visit to the mobile safety center, and 98 percent reported they would recommend the mobile safety center services to a friend or family member.
“Injuries are the number one cause of death among children in the U.S., and disproportionally affect poor and minority children,” said Dr. Gielen. “Our findings document that mobile safety centers can effectively reach community members with information on how to prevent injuries in their homes, as well as deliver low-cost safety products directly to families.” Previous research showed that access barriers such as lack of availability in convenient locations and high costs are particular problems for low-income families in using products such as car seats and bike helmets that are proven to reduce injuries and save lives.
To access the article published in the April 2009 issue of Injury Prevention, click here. For more information on the Johns Hopkins Children ARE Safe (CARES) Mobile Safety Center, please click here.
A new paper authored by researchers from the Center for Injury Research and Policy finds that mothers with high exposure to neighborhood violence are more likely to rate their health as poor and to report negative health outcomes, including sleep behaviors. Specifically, the research found that mothers who experienced exposure to high neighborhood violence had greater odds of reporting less than 7 hours of sleep per night, and also were more likely to report interrupted sleep. These findings suggest that neighborhood violence may negatively impact a mother’s ability to fully care for and protect their children. Interestingly, while 20 percent of the mothers in the study were classified as experiencing the highest level of neighborhood violence, only 12 percent classified themselves in the lowest category of perceived neighborhood safety. Previous research has indicated that mothers may report higher ratings of neighborhood safety to self-validate their decision to remain in a violent neighborhood, perhaps in part due to their inability to move to a new neighborhood.
The study is published in the April issue of the Journal of Urban Health. The lead author is Sara Lindstrom Johnson, PhD, who completed her Doctorate with the Center in 2009. Additional authors are: Barry S. Solomon, Wendy C. Shields, Eileen M. McDonald, Lara B. McKenzie, and Andrea C. Gielen. The complete abstract to the article can be found here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19343500.
On April 1, close to fifty students, faculty, and injury control professionals paid tribute to the late Daniel J. Raskin by attending an annual lecture endowed by Danny’s mother, the late Vivian Raskin, in honor of her son’s life work.? Raskin was a highly skilled human factors investigator for the National Transportation Safety Board and a tireless advocate for transportation safety and injury prevention. He was killed as a volunteer firefighter in 1990 by a preventable explosion of faulty equipment. The goal of the symposium is to educate public health professionals and the broader community about current research, policy and programs to reduce injury.
The symposium, “Surviving Airplane Crashes: Miracles or Science” featured two former colleagues of Daniel, Nora Marshall, Chief of Human Performance and Survival at the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), and Robert S. Dodd, ScD, MS, Chief of Safety Studies and Statistical Analysis at NTSB. Ms. Marshall spoke about “What’s New in Accident Survival” and Dr. Dodd discussed "Crash Survival Improvements and Politics".??
The Center for Injury Research and Policy hosts the annual event. Sue Baker, MPH, a professor with the Center, commented on how the theme of the lecture paralleled Danny’s work in injury prevention. “Nora and Bob both spoke about the opportunities for survival following a plane crash, a topic that doesn’t receive much attention in the press. By giving examples of the types of changes required to prevent future aviation-related deaths, they taught us all a great deal about the kinds of next steps we need to pursue to save lives.”
For more information on the NTSB, click here.
Two individuals affiliated with the Center for Injury Research and Policy were recognized for their outstanding contributions to the field of injury prevention at the annual meeting of The Society for Advancement of Violence and Injury Research (SAVIR), held March 3-6 in Atlanta, GA. SAVIR is devoted to promoting scholarly activity in injury control and addressing issues relevant to the prevention, acute care and rehabilitation of traumatic injury.
Shannon Frattaroli, PhD, MPH, Assistant Professor, was awarded the first-ever SAVIR President’s Award in recognition of her dedication and leadership in the organization and in the field of violence and injury prevention. In addition to serving on the board of SAVIR, Shannon played a key role in organizing the 2009 annual conference, which drew close to 250 injury control researchers, practitioners, and advocates from across the country.
Also recognized for her work was Jennifer Piver-Renna, a doctoral student with the Center. Jennifer received the Best Student Abstract award for her research exploring screening and brief interventions in trauma centers. This abstract was part of the research Jennifer did for her dissertation with the Center, which she recently completed.
“On behalf of the Injury Center, I congratulate Shannon and Jennifer on their achievements,” said Andrea Gielen, ScD, Director of the Injury Center. “We look forward to continuing our involvement with SAVIR when we host the 2013 annual meeting.” Additional information on the 2013 meeting in Baltimore, MD will be forthcoming.
For more information on SAVIR, please click here.
Andrea Gielen, ScD, Director of the Center for Injury Research and Policy was a featured presenter at the 9th annual meeting American Academy of Health Behavior (AAHB) which took place March 9-11 in Hilton Head, SC. AAHB serves as a professional society for health behavior scholars, and promotes the application of behavioral science research to practice in order to improve the public's health.
Dr. Gielen, an elected Fellow of the Academy, was one of three speakers invited for the session on knowledge translation, "Sustaining Health Behavior Changes in the Real World: Translational Approaches". Dr. Gielen’s presentation, “Translation Research in Child Injury Prevention: Case Study of Serving Low Income Urban Families”, focused on? her research in Baltimore with Center faculty Frattarolli, McDonald, Shields and Center alumni Lara (Trifiletti)McKenzie and Maria Bulzacchelli.
Research translation is an emerging and important priority for the Center. “Because science has taught us so much about how to prevent injuries, the real opportunity to reduce the burden of injury lies in the translation of research into action,” said Andrea. “We need to work with communities to deliver effective programs, products, and policies that make a difference to those who need it most.”
Adnan Hyder, MD, PhD, MPH and Jacquelyn C. Campbell, PhD, RN, FAAN, have been named global health research ambassadors by Research! America’s Paul G. Rogers Society for Global Health Research. Named for the Honorable Paul G. Rogers (1921-2008), former Florida Congressman and and Research! America chair emeritus, the Society works to increase awareness of and make the case for greater U.S. investment in research to fight diseases and injuries that disproportionately affect the world’s poorest nations. Research! America works with the Ambassadors to maximize the effectiveness of their outreach to policymakers, opinion leaders and the media.
Both Drs. Campbell and Hyder are experts in their fields -- domestic and intimate partner violence (IPV) and the impact of injuries and violence as a public health problem in the developing world, respectively. Dr. Hyder is Associate Professor in the Department of International Health and Dr. Campbell is Professor in the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing. ?As core faculty in the Injury Center, both have contributed greatly to the Center’s mission to reduce the burden of injury and violence. ?
Joined by the other ambassadors, they will meet with policymakers to make the case for an increased U.S. investment in global health research on injuries. “It’s terrific to see injuries and violence so well-represented by these distinguished scholars,” said Andrea Gielen, ScD, Director of the Center for Injury Research and Policy. “This is a great opportunity to advocate for enhanced US support for global health in general, and in particular, for the prevention of injuries and violence around the world.”
For more information on the Global Health Research Ambassadors, please click here
A new study co-authored by Patricia Mahoney, MA, research associate, and Andrea Gielen, ScD, director of the Center for Injury Research and Policy, and published in "Violence and Victims" quantitatively addresses the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM) stages of change for women's experience of ending abuse within intimate relationships.? The TTM conceptualizes behavior change as a process that occurs in five stages: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action and maintenance. ?The underlying premise is that people in different points of the behavior change process can benefit from different types of interventions tailored to their stage of readiness. ?It is estimated that more than 5 million women are affected by intimate partner violence each year in the U.S.
The authors found that compared to women in action and maintenance for leaving an abusive relationship, a higher proportion of women who are categorized into preaction stages would like informational resources, whereas a large proportion of women in maintenance for leaving an abusive relationship would like a chance to talk with a peer advocate. ?The results also support the significant role relationships with friends, family and healthcare professionals play, as well as the importance of information distribution in keeping women safe. ?"This work adds to the body of literature on defining stages of change for IPV victims," said study co-author Patricia Mahoney. ?"Further research is necessary to develop tailored interventions to most effectively assist women in moving forward on the path to safety."
On February 18th, the Baltimore City Fire Department, the Baltimore City Health Department, and the Center for Injury Research and Policy came together to teach Baltimore families how to reduce their risk of injury from home fires. Over fifteen hundred house fires occur each year in Baltimore, and the majority of these fires are preventable. This marks the first time the Center has partnered with these two groups to provide fire prevention education to the community, and was part of the Baltimore City Health Department's Prevention Wednesday public education campaign.
In addition to collaborating on an educational flyer focusing on steps to take to reduce the likelihood of injury from home fires, the three groups hosted a press conference featuring representatives from each organization. Eileen McDonald, MS, Associate Scientist with the Center for Injury Research and Policy and Director of The Johns Hopkins Children's Safety Centers, spoke on behalf of the Injury Center and reminded all Baltimore City residents that having smoke alarms without batteries is the same as not having alarms at all. This message is important because Center research found that while 90 percent of homes have smoke alarms, 50 percent of the alarms did not function properly. Eileen also spoke about the referral services offered through the Center's three Safety Centers.
Underscoring the importance of partnerships, Eileen later stated that "forming and developing collaborations with other community groups is an integral part of what we do to deliver on our mission to reduce the burden of injuries. By working together, we are able to accomplish more than we are working alone."
To see an example of how local media covered the event, please click on the following link http://wjz.com/seenon/fires.baltimore.2.938234.html
Jennifer Piver-Renna, a doctoral student with the Center for Injury Research and Policy, was recently awarded a student fellowship in Injury Prevention from the Society for Public Health Education and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).? The fellowship is designed to support the training of a new generation of injury prevention researchers and practitioners who work in the behavioral sciences.
As part of the award, Jennifer also received a stipend to support her dissertation research examining the adoption and implementation of alcohol screaning, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) programs in Mid-Atlantic Level 1 trauma centers. ?"Jennifer's case study will yield new insights into how hospitals can best implement SBIRT programs, which help reduce injuries by making alcohol screening a routine part of medical care," said Andrea Gielen, ScD, ScM, director of the Center and Jennifer's advisor. ?"On behalf of the Injury Center, I congratulate her on this impressive recognition."
On December 16 the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health teamed up with CareFirst, Baltimore City Fire Department, and the Herring Run Head Start for the first "Give the Gift of Safety" Holiday Safety Health Fair. The event featured the CARES mobile safety center , which was specially outfitted to reflect the risks that household items typically associated with the holidays, such as candles and holiday decorations, pose to families.? In addition to the mobile safety center, the health fair also provided free home safety kits to all families, raffle giveaways of safety products and activities that focused on injury prevention. Read More>>>
The first report, authored by the World Health Organization and UNICEF, focuses on the burden of unintentional injuries globally. The World Report on Child Injury Prevention finds that unintentional injuries kill 830,000 children every year, and that 95 percent of all injuries to children occur in poor and middle-income countries.? The report provides the first comprehensive global assessment of unintentional childhood injuries and prescribes measures to prevent them. It concludes that if proven prevention measures were adopted everywhere, at least 1,000 children's lives could be saved every day. Click here to view the first report.
The second report, released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "CDC Childhood Injury Report: Patterns of Unintentional Injuries Among 0-19 Year Olds in the United States, 2000-2006," provides an overview of child injuries related to drowning, falls, fires or burns, transportation-related injuries, poisoning, and suffocation, among other causes. The report finds that on average, 12,175 children 0 to 19 years of age died each year in the United States from an unintentional injury, and that injuries due to transportation were the leading cause of death for children.? Click here to view the second report.
"Not only do these reports raise the awareness about the magnitude, risk factors and impact of child injuries globally," noted Center director Andrea Gielen, ScD, ScM, "their call to action is clear: Because much is known about how to prevent injuries and improve trauma outcomes, we must act now to reduce the burden of child injury."
Children who are overweight or obese are over two and a half times more likely to suffer injuries to their upper and lower extremities following a motor vehicle crash compared with normal weight children, according to a new report from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health's Center for Injury Research and Policy. Overweight and obese children were overall more likely to experience injury to any body part following a crash; however this difference was not statistically significant. This is the first study to look at impact of body mass index on older kids involved in car crashes. Read More>>>
On October 28th, faculty member and past Center director Susan Baker received the American Public Health Association's highest award in Injury Control, the Injury Control Distinguished Career Award. This award is in recognition of her outstanding dedication and leadership in injury control and emergency health services with contributions and achievements that have a significant and long-term impact on the field.
"Simply stated, Sue helped to put scientific study and prevention of injuries on the map", said Jon Vernick, JD, MPH, deputy director of the Center.? "From her research on children and automobile crashes which provided the scientific basis for all U.S. states passing child passenger protection laws, to her pioneering work in aviation safety, the impact of Sue's research has undoubtedly reduced the burden of injury in the U.S. and abroad. On behalf of the Injury Center, I congratulate her on this well-deserved recognition".
Center faculty member and former director Susan P. Baker has been named a Public Health Hero by Research!America, the nation's largest not-for-profit public education and advocacy alliance. The honor comes in recognition of her research in injury prevention and driving safety which has resulted in national passenger protection laws and thousands of lives saved.
In order to bring recognition to the public health professionals who work tirelessly every day to protect us, Research!America designates the Monday before Thanksgiving as Public Health Thank You Day. ?Sue is one of eight individuals selected to be highlighted this year in honor of their tremendous accomplishments in the field of public health.
On Public Health Thank You Day, "we recognize our 'health protection heroes' who work tirelessly every day to promote the health of people of all ages," said Julie Louise Gerberding, MD, MPH, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention director. "The 14,000 public health professionals at the CDC.... say 'thank you' ?to each of these heroes on the frontlines of health. As a result of their dedication, we are all able to live healthier, safer, and longer lives."
More information on Public Health Thank You Day and Research!America's Public Health Heroes can be found at the Research!America Website.
Samantha L. Illangasekare, MPH, a PhD candidate in the Department of Health, Behavior and Society and advisee of Center director Andrea Gielen, has recently been awarded the Ruth L. Kirschstein Individual Predoctoral Fellowship National Research Service Award (NRSA) from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). The objective of the Kirschstein-NRSA Individual Predoctoral Fellowship is to provide support for promising doctoral candidates who will be performing dissertation research and training in scientific health-related fields relevant to the missions of the participating NIH Institutes during the tenure of the award.
Samantha's research will describe for the first time the syndemic of violence, substance abuse and HIV among low income urban women. ?Working with faculty affiliated with the Lighthouse Studies at Peer Point, a community-based research center within the Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Ms. Illangasekare will recruit and interview women to determine the prevalence and mental health impacts of these co-occurring conditions.
"Samantha's work will yield new insights into intervention opportunities to reduce the burden of intimate partner violence and improve women's health", said Andrea Gielen, ScD, ScM, director of the Center. "On behalf of the Injury Center, I congratulate her on this impressive accomplishment and recognition from NIMH."
The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), has awarded dissertation grants to Hopkins public health students Sarah Lindstrom and Susan Ghanbarpour. These represent the only dissertation funding awarded this year by NCIPC.
Ms. Lindstrom is a PhD candidate in the Department of Health, Behavior and Society and advisee of Center director Andrea Gielen.? Her dissertation work aims to understand what factors of the school, social and physical environments encourage or discourage violence from occurring at school, and how these factors contribute to the occurrence and severity of that violence. Ms. Lindstrom is using concept mapping, an innovative research method rarely used in injury research, to explore these issues with samples of students recruited in Baltimore City.
Ms Ghanbarpour is a DrPH student in the Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health working with faculty member Daniel Webster's Center-funded intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention trial. ?Her dissertation is an outgrowth of this project and is partially supported by the Center. Her research seeks to answer 4 main questions on IPV: 1. What safety behaviors do women in abusive relationships know about and practice, and how effective do they believe them to be? 2. What are the issues and circumstances that influence women's decisions to practice particular safety strategies? 3. What did women think about a risk assessment and safety planning intervention they received? 4. What are the critical elements of a customizable safety planning tool designed for use by professionals who serve IPV victims?
"Training the next generation of leaders in injury prevention and policy is an essential ingredient to the continued success of our efforts in reducing injury and its impact on society," said Andrea Gielen ScD, ScM, director of the Center. "On behalf of everyone at the Injury Center, I congratulate Sarah and Susan on their well-deserved recognition from NCIPC."
Contrary to popular belief, grandparent care is not associated with more childhood injuries, according to a new report from the Center for Injury Research and Policy. In fact, for working parents, having grandparents as caregivers can cut the risk of childhood injury roughly in half.? The study is among the first to examine the relationship between grandparents' care and childhood injury rates. The results are published in the November 2008 issue of Pediatrics.
The rate of suicide in the United States has increased for the first time in a decade, according to a new report from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health's Center for Injury Research and Policy. The increase in the overall suicide rate between 1999 and 2005 was due primarily to an increase in suicides among whites aged 40-64, with white middle-age women experiencing the largest annual increase.
Senators Barbara Mikulski and Ben Cardin (both D-Md.) announced the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health has received a $1 million Fire Prevention and Safety Grant to support research to help reduce the number of firefighter fatalities due to heart attacks.? The Bloomberg School is collaborating with the National Volunteer Fire Council in this research effort.? Project director, Keshia Pollack, PhD, assistant professor with the Department of Health Policy and Management, will work with her team and NVFC to identify barriers that limit the implementation of wellness and fitness interventions among firefighters and fire departments in Maryland and Arizona.
The Home Safety Council awarded the Home Safety Research Award to Center for Injury Research & Policy Director Andrea Gielen, ScD, ScM, at its annual Salute to Home Safety Awards Dinner, June 5, 2008, in Washington D.C. The Home Safety Research Award honors individuals whose research on injury prevention contributes to reducing deaths and injuries from falls, poisonings, fire and burns, drowning and airway obstruction.