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Infographic: Vaccine Cost Effectiveness

Vaccines Work: Cost Effectiveness Infographic

Decade of Vaccines Economics (DOVE)

Phase I

Research from Phase I of the Decade of Vaccines Economics (DOVE) project resulted in several publications, described below, along with an infographic.

In the June 9, 2011 issue of Health Affairs, research from IVAC shows that increasing access to and coverage with new and existing vaccines can yield substantial health and economic benefits. Using projections of immunization coverage from the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy, and the Lives Saved Tool, an estimated 6.4 million child deaths could be averted by increasing coverage with a package of 6 key vaccines – including measles, Hib, pneumococcal, DTP, rotavirus, and malaria (from 2015 onwards) - between 2011-2020. Using these health impact projections, Stack et al. and Ozawa et al. (Health Affairs – June 2011 issue) calculate the economic value of these health gains.

Decade of Vaccines: Cost-effectivness of Vaccines: Value of Statistical Life

Key Findings

Beyond preventing 426 million cases of illness and averting 6.4 million deaths over the next ten years, improving coverage of childhood immunization would hold major economic benefits for both families and governments.

  • Expanding childhood immunization rates in the world's 72 poorest countries over the next decade would result in an estimated $151 billion in treatment and productivity savings.
  • Averting short-term costs of disease treatment saves $6.2 billion and avoiding the lost productivity of caretakers saves $1.2 billion, while averting the long term economic costs of lost productivity due to disability and death yields savings of $144 billion.
  • Vaccines against pneumonia alone represent $68 billion (45%) of the total estimated savings in treatment costs and productivity losses, while accounting for 42% of the 6.4 million lives saved.
  • The ability to avert 6.4 million deaths by improving vaccine coverage has an estimated value of $231 billion for those in at-risk countries.
  • Based on an analysis of the five countries where the majority of the averted deaths occur, we expect that the economic value of the vaccination program is somewhere between 3 and 18 times the projected costs of purchasing the vaccines.

Access the full-text articles here:

Access the Health Affairs launch presentations here:

Phase II

A systematic review of the literature on the cost-effectiveness and economic benefits of vaccines in low- and middle-income countries conducted by IVAC was published in the December 17, 2012 issue of Vaccine. The review identified 108 relevant articles from 51 countries spanning 23 vaccines. Among the 44 articles that reported costs per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted, vaccines cost less than or equal to $100 per DALY averted in 23 articles (52%) and less than $1,000 per DALY averted in 38 articles (86%). Less than one-quarter of the articles examined broad level economic benefits of vaccines, such as greater future wage-earning capacity, and cost savings from averting disease outbreaks. There were also few studies on the long-term and societal economic benefits, such as morbidity-related productivity gains, averting catastrophic health expenditures, GDP growth, and economic implications of demographic changes resulting from vaccination. Overall, the review shows that vaccination in low- and middle-income countries brings important economic benefits, but highlights areas where additional research is needed.

Access the article here:

Other papers forthcoming.

Phase III

The DOVE III exercise responds to the requests of the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) to:

  1. Further develop methods for estimating and projecting resource requirements for immunization programs,
  2. Include financing projections to present a funding gap analysis, and
  3. Incorporate economic benefits to conduct a return on investment (ROI) analysis for the Decade of Vaccines (2011-2020)

This work is led by Dr. Ozawa at Johns Hopkins in collaboration with Dr. Sinha at Rutgers University. The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) Costing & Financing Steering Committee (comprised of members from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), GAVI Secretariat, UNICEF, and the World Health Organization) provide ongoing guidance on the costing, financing, and ROI analyses. The ROI and funding gap analyses aim to support resource mobilization efforts by core partners at regional and global levels. This work builds on a set of health impact and economic benefits models by adding costing and financing analyses to bolster the evidence base for the value of vaccinations. The project will model the costs, financing, and impact of vaccines across 2011-2020 for 94 countries (73 GAVI countries plus 21 countries included in the GVAP). Results from the analysis will be presented by year, income group, region, GAVI eligibility, GAVI co-financing status, and routine vs. supplemental vaccines.