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Keyword: pneumococcal

By Dr. Anne von Gottberg, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases

This article was originally published on www.vaccineswork.org and is cross-posted here with permission.

If you had looked at South Africa’s invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) surveillance data before 2002, you would have never guessed that one day that data would land on the pages of the New England Journal of Medicine

Even I thought such a feat was impossible. Surveillance for IPD was passive and patchy – certainly not the kind of data you could use to examine trends or measure impact.  In 2002, experts in pneumonia and respiratory disease suggested that we completely revamp the system: start measuring antimicrobial resistance and serotypes, obtain clinical data from cases to explore risk factors for resistance.  Although this was long before the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was introduced, we knew any investments we made in the surveillance system now would pay huge dividends later, and possibly allow us to measure the impact of PCV introduction.

Noluthando Duma works in the lab

An example of disease surveillance activities. Here, Noluthando Duma works in the lab. Photo: NICD.

Revamping a national surveillance system was not an easy task.  Our institute managed the process - from employing surveillance staff throughout the country to collecting data - and we had many, many challenges.  This project seemed so unusual, so impossible, that it was difficult to convince anyone to join us.  We would interview surveillance officers at remote regional sites who wondered how they could report to a central office in Johannesburg, given that they had never even been there; they couldn’t imagine how such a big, unwieldy national program could ever work. We would answer their questions with what I hoped sounded like confidence, but the truth was that we were figuring out the answers as we went along.

Despite these human resource challenges, we charged ahead, but it was a slow-and-steady race.  At our national surveillance officer and principle investigator meetings, we had to bring together key stakeholders to discuss the surveillance network.  We had to get buy-in on the methods, the case definitions, the flow of data, and sharing of information, and then we had to hire staff to operationalize our ambitious plans. Many new hires had never been on an airplane before, and some had never seen the ocean – the surveillance network really made South Africa smaller, bringing people together in the “new South Africa” in ways that I could not have predicted. So we anxiously booked window seats, made time for quick excursions to the beach, and hoped for the best. And although we had our fair share of hiccups along the way, our small team continued to grow, the years passed, and we kept on finding ways to silence the naysayers!

Meanwhile, things did not stay still around us.  The South African government suddenly found the political will to tackle the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and with a tremendous effort, the government and civil society rapidly improved care of HIV-infected pregnant women, HIV-infected children, and adults in general.  With these sudden improvements in healthcare, IPD also changed, making it more difficult to attribute any declines to the vaccine, even with the new surveillance system.  But through a series of discussions with local and international colleagues and friends, countless conference calls, and careful review of the data, it finally became possible to tell the story that was in the data, collected for so many years by our dedicated surveillance teams.

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Colleague Kedibone Ndlangisa conducting lab work. Photo: NICD

Last week, as experts and decision makers gathered in Kenya to discuss the results of various PCV impact studies from across Africa – all showing significant reductions in pneumococcal disease after the introduction of the vaccine – I was reminded of how far we had come on our journey and the many lessons learned on our path. 

By maintaining our slow-and-steady approach remembering to “ask a friend” when we were stumped, and above all continuing to plow on in the face of challenges, we were able to turn data that at first glance may have looked like a mess into a meaningful and robust assessment of the impact of PCV. 

This study is part of the the Vaccine Implementation Technical Assistance Consortium (VITAC) - a collaboration of PATHCDC, and IVAC - supports the achievement of the mission to save lives, prevent disease, and promote health through timely and equitable access to new and underused vaccines. VITAC is focused on accelerating the introduction and sustained use of vaccines by creating the evidence base, advocating for evidence-driven decision making, and establishing a platform for countries to assess the resources needed for sustained and optimal use of vaccines.

This post originally appeared on the Nigeria Health Watch and is cross-posted here with permission.

By Chizoba Wonodi

Nigeria launched the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)into its childhood immunization schedule in Lokoja, on December 22nd 2014. PCV prevents one of the deadliest bacterial causes of pneumonia, meningitis, blood infections and middle ear infections in children. Before now, only parents with the means could afford to vaccinate their children for thousands of naira in private clinics. But now, government is offering it for free to all kids. This is a big deal, so get excited!

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 Launch of PCV Vaccination in Lokoja

A journey that began 6 years ago has finally come to a successful end. But it was not an easy ride. As I think about the road to this introduction, I remember all the twists and turns along the way and marvel at the tenacity and perseverance of the chief actors in this story.

In 2008, I was working for a Johns Hopkins project called PneumoAdip, which was set up to accelerate the introduction of PCV into African and Asian countries. You may wonder why anyone needs a project to do that, right? Well, it turns out that having a vaccine that works is not enough to get countries to use it, unless the vaccine is for Ebola. I bet countries will scramble for an Ebola vaccine, if it comes. But then most diseases are not like Ebola. For more silent diseases like pneumonia, it takes concerted effort to make the decision makers recognize the burden of the disease, the value of the vaccine and the actions to take on it. For example, it took Nigeria 21 years to adopt the Haemophilus Influenza b (Hib) vaccine into our routine system. The first country to use Hib vaccine in their national program started in 1991, we started 2012.

I remember sitting in the Premier Hotel Ibadan during the 39th Annual General and Scientific Conference of the Paediatric Association of Nigeria (PANCONF) in January 2008. The halls were packed, the place was buzzing, the energy was infectious, pediatricians were milling around discussing how to save babies. I had come from Baltimore to field test a pneumonia diagnostic tool and discuss the prospect of Nigeria introducing PCV into the national immunization program.

At one of the session breaks, I cornered Dr. Abanida, then Director of Immunization at NPHCDA and asked him, “Doc, when are we going to introduce penta and PCV?” “Very soon” he replied, “We will apply for both vaccines this year”. This was an unexpected and pleasant surprise. I had predicted he would commit to only penta, but PCV as well? That was great. You see, it was no coincidence that we were coming late to the penta party when countries like Kenya had introduced the vaccine 8 year before. As a country, we had been preoccupied with battling polio, especially after the major polio vaccine rejection of 2004. In addition, our systems were weak. Indeed, before 2005, we would not have been able to apply for Gavi support for new vaccines even our immunization coverage was less than 50%, less than the required threshold. To get Gavi’s help, countries have to meet certain eligibility criteria and they have to formally apply and be approved for support.

Just as Dr. Abanida had declared, in April 2008, Nigeria tendered their first Gavi application for penta and PCV introduction support. In June 2008, the reviewers granted the application a conditional approval.

Disappointed but not deterred, in September 2008, the new vaccine application team led by Dr. Oteri, then Gavi desk officer at NPHCDA, responded to the conditions and queries from Gavi. But the second submission was rejected and the country was asked to re-apply.

Three things then happened that delayed the process for the next two and half years. First, Gavi suspended all new vaccine applications due to internal processes and funding constraints. No country could apply for new vaccine support in 2009. Second, Gavi revised their new vaccine application policy, now requiring an immunization coverage rate of at least 70% instead of 50%. Third, Nigeria’s vaccine coverage dropped below 50% to 42% according to WHO-UNICEF estimate released in June 2010. This new drop caused Dr. Dorothy Esangbedo, then the President of the Pediatric Association of Nigeria, to lament bitterly and call for stronger action to shore up routine immunization.

Under the new policy and with the lower coverage, Nigeria could not re-apply in 2010. In fact, a workshop in August 2010 convened by NPHCDA to develop the third submission was truncated by the twin news that our coverage rate had dropped and Gavi coverage requirement had increased.

When Gavi began revising their policy, there had been talk and expectation in some quarters that countries such as Nigeria, who were already in the application process before the policy change, would be “grandfathered in”. That did not pan out. To help matters, Gavi delayed the implementation of the new coverage requirement by one year, which left Nigeria with one window of opportunity to apply in May 2011.

But there was one more hurdle to scale. Coverage estimates for 2010 had to be 50% or better. The National Immunization Coverage Survey (NICS), showed coverage to be 71% for 2010, but Gavi only recognizes the WHO/UNICEF estimates, which was still 42% and would only be updated in July. Nigeria needed the updated estimates to apply in May. The update would be two months late. What to do?

The emails and phone calls started going back and forth advocating for a solution. At IVAC we pushed for different options: allow Nigeria use the NICS to apply, allow a phased introduction, so that states that meet the coverage criteria can be supported to introduce the vaccine, while effort be made to raise coverage in the other states. Dr. Mohammad Ali Pate, then Minister of State for Health, was very vocal in his advocacy to find a solution. Eventually and exceptionally, Gavi allowed Nigeria to apply for penta and PCV in May 2011. Then in July 2011, penta was approved and PCV was conditionally approved. All decisions were subject to the 2010 WHO/UNICEF DTP3 coverage estimates being >50%.

After the July 2011 conditional approval for PCV, Nigeria worked on responding to the conditions attached to the approval by strengthening the cold chain system. Then, 15 months later, in October 2012, Gavi gave the final approval for a phased roll out of PCV to begin in 2013. However, due to global supply constraints and other operational issues such as strikes in the Nigerian health sector, the first child could not be vaccinated till December 2014.

I didn’t go for the launch, but my colleagues went, and it was gratifying to see the culmination of everyone’s effort. Big thanks should go to the NPHCDA, GaviUNICEFWHOPediatric Association of NigeriaCHAI and all other groups who have pushed hard to see this happen.

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First Nigerian Child to receive the Free Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

As I look at the grainy picture of baby Collins, who is the first child to be vaccinated, cry out in pain from the shots of the first PCV vaccination, I wish I could tell him,

“Baby, don’t cry, laugh instead, even though that injection is painful. You are getting a shot a life. Something that babies before you did not get, but thankfully those after you will receive. If we are able to immunize 87% of your fellow babies every year with this vaccine, we can save about 200,000 lives by 2020. Isn’t that something to laugh or even rejoice about? Yes indeed, it is cause for celebration. I only wish it didn’t take six long years for this to happen. Think of all the babies we could have saved in that time. Anyway, you are too young to understand all this. After all, what do you know? You are just a baby. You probably just want to suck you mother’s breast right now, forget all this noise and go to sleep. So I’ll let you be.”

 

Dr. Chizoba Wonodi (MBBS, MPH, DrPH), 
Nigeria Country Programs Lead, Johns Hopkins International Vaccine Access Centre,  
Advisor, Saving One Million Lives Initiative,  
Advisor, Gavi’s Strategic Demand Forecast for vaccines.

This post originally appeared on the VaccinesWork blog and is cross-posted here with permission.

By Huma Khawar

In 2012, Pakistan was the first South Asian country to introduce the pneumococcal vaccine with Gavi support. Provided free of charge to children under the age of five, the vaccine protects against a major cause of pneumonia, a disease that is a major killer of children worldwide. But in order for any vaccine programme to be successful, information and support are essential. And where do many people get their information? The media.

Pakistan Media Session

The question and answer session in action. Photo: Huma Khawar

Dr Taimoor Shah, Deputy Director Khyber Pakhtunkhaw province’s Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI), knows this well. On World Pneumonia Day last November, he took the opportunity to gather a room full of journalists of all backgrounds at the Press Club in Peshawar, to talk specifically about the pneumococcal vaccine and to answer their questions. 

The result was a discussion that sounded more like a medical classroom than a group of reporters. How many vaccines are included in a child’s immunisation programme? What are the diseases that can be prevented through immunisation? How expensive is the pneumonia injection? It was difficult to decide whether to feel surprise at the lack of awareness among the media about vaccine preventable diseases or to be happy at the eagerness and genuine interest expressed in the reasons for Pakistan’s high rates of child mortality.  

The session was both informal and interactive. Journalists from different organisations suggested ways to educate people on vaccination and eradication of fatal diseases through media messages. They concluded that it was the common duty of parents, government health institutions, media and civil society to take steps for overcoming health issues through vaccination and timely treatment. 

One journalist confessed that although he knew all about how and when to give the different vaccinations, he didn’t know the importance of each. ”It will be easier, he said, to convince mothers on the importance of getting their babies immunised.”  

The session also gave the health journalists an opportunity to express their own opinions and share insights. They talked openly about how, over the years, with so much money and emphasis directed towards polio eradication, routine immunisation had taken a backseat.    

By the end of the session, some 30 plus media personnel had learned much more about vaccines and routine immunisation. One digital reporter admitted that this type of question and answer sessions was essential as a vast majority of journalists have limited knowledge of vaccines and their potential. 

“A lot of mothers get their information from newspapers. Media should be up to date. If their knowledge is suspect, they will pass on wrong information to parents. This can be very dangerous,” he said.

And in a country where each year one in twelve children born die before reaching the age of five, many of them due to vaccine-preventable diseases, spreading this newfound knowledge can only be a good thing. 

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Photo: Humar Khawar

Huma Khawar is a freelance journalist and IVAC communications consultant who works in Pakistan.

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Daniel Feikin, MD, MSPH

Special thanks to Daniel Feikin, MD, MSPH, for sharing his insight on his team’s latest publication. Dr. Feikin has been with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for 15 years, where he spent 6 years with the Respiratory Diseases Branch and also served as the Epidemiology Section Chief for the International Emerging Infections Program in Kenya.  Dr. Feikin has worked on a number of projects including surveillance establishing the burden and epidemiology of respiratory and diarrheal illness.  Since 2010, Dr. Feikin has served as the Director of the Epidemiology team at the International Vaccine Access Center (IVAC).

Published in the September issue of PLOS Medicine, Serotype-Specific Changes in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease after Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction: A Pooled Analysis of Multiple Surveillance Sites analyzes the rates of invasive pneumococcal disease after the introduction of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7).  Dr. Feikin and colleagues from IVAC and CDC conducted this meta-analysis which showed that a reduction in all-cause and vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease happened rather quickly and was sustained for seven years after the introduction of PCV across the study sites.  In the following interview, Dr. Feikin shares his insight on the issue of serotype replacement and how this it relates to decision making regarding PCV use.

What is serotype replacement (SR) and why is it an issue?

We have a unique situation with pneumococcus and pneumococcal vaccines with respect to serotype replacement. With pneumococcus, serotypes are defined by the kind of sugar capsule that surrounds the bacterium, and 90 different types have been defined.  This creates a challenge for vaccines, which are based on specific serotypes. The first iteration of this conjugate vaccine could only fit in seven serotypes.  They put the seven most common serotypes that you’d find in the US and Europe into the vaccine – that covered about 85% of the disease in the U.S.

First, SR was observed in the nose, which is where pneumococcus resides. Most of the time, the bacteria doesn’t cause disease, it just lives there in back of the nose (the nasopharynx) and a small percentage of the time, the bacteria in the nose will go on to cause an infection. When you get vaccinated, you get rid of the seven pneumococcal serotypes contained in the vaccine from the nose – quite effectively and quite rapidly.  But what we also saw was that the seven serotypes that were wiped out by the vaccine were replaced by other serotypes of pneumococcus.  That phenomenon – when you get rid of [serotypes] and they are replaced by others – is dubbed SR.  The concern was: this is what happens to the bacteria living in the nose; does the same thing happen with disease caused by those bacteria?   Are you just getting rid of the disease caused by the seven serotypes in the vaccine and having it be replaced by pneumococcal disease (PD) from the other serotypes?  If that were to happen, you have the paradoxical situation of a vaccine that works against the seven serotypes you want it to work against, but your overall disease rates might not change in the long run because of SR.  It was a really important question about whether this vaccine had an overall impact on disease – we needed to clarify whether SR exists and how much it exists.

What type of study did you choose to look at this issue and why did you feel it was the best way to research this question?

We conducted a meta-analysis, using 21 databases that were identified, to look at IPD rates after PCV7 introduction. When you are considering PD, you have to think about several different types of disease. The first type of disease is called invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD).  IPD is the most straightforward because it means bacteria have invaded a normally sterile site – usually the cerebrospinal fluid, (the fluid surrounding the meninges) or the blood – and you can grow the bacteria from this fluid so it can be detected and positively identified. But the much bigger burden of PD is pneumonia, and most of the time when you have pneumococcal pneumonia you’re not going to isolate the bacteria since you can’t get a sample from the lung to grow and it normally isn’t a sterile site. So, when you want to look at SR, you are limited to looking at IPD – where you are able to culture the pneumococcus. That’s why the study focuses on IPD. 

The second thing to understand is that there have been lots of individual studies from different countries, or different sites from the same country, that have looked at the issue of SR. There were many reports that came out after vaccine introduction and they were variable.  There were some sites that showed very little SR and big impact of the vaccine. Then, there were other studies that showed up to full SR, meaning that you get rid of the vaccine serotype [with] full replacement by non-vaccine serotype (NVT), so in those sites there were no changes in overall disease rates.

This led to a lot of confusion. As countries in Africa and Asia were thinking about introducing PCV, they were concerned and somewhat confused about this issue of SR and wanted to know if PCV was worth their investment. That was the impetus in doing the study and it’s unclear why there were different results in different places. Some of it might have been that there truly was more SR in some sites, but it also could have been methodological differences or that some sites had very small samples sizes. One outlier site was potentially getting a lot of attention and people were looking at that saying there was complete SR, whereas another site was not showing that. So the idea behind the study was to put all the sites together, weigh all the studies according to their size and findings, and see if we could come up with some sort of summary of SR.

In the course of this analysis, was there anything that was surprising to you?

I have two answers for that. First, although a lot of countries had introduced PCV7, there weren’t many sites that had done the type of surveillance that we felt would be appropriate for this type of analysis. There were sites that were doing surveillance, but when you boiled it down to who met stringent criteria for being able to evaluate SR, there weren’t as many as I thought. That was a lesson because people are out there publishing studies and making conclusions about SR with limitations in their surveillance, which we felt would affect their interpretation of SR, so we did not include those types of studies. We were fairly rigorous in our inclusion and exclusion criteria, so we only ended up including 21 studies. 

The second thing that was somewhat surprising to me in the results was that when we looked at children, and when we looked at the overall impact of this vaccine on children, there was about a 50% reduction in overall IPD. So, overall IPD decreased by half. We saw that decrease happen by the first year after the vaccine was introduced and it stayed at roughly 50% reduction all the way out to about seven years. I thought that initially there would be a growing reduction in overall PD over time. The drop in the first year was greater than I thought – suggesting that this vaccine had a pretty fast impact on pneumococcal epidemiology in children – and it didn’t change a lot after that first year.  Now, there was a lot going on with each progressive year, so vaccine types started to go down and they continued to go down out to seven years until they were virtually gone. You were getting a lot of change in the different serotypes starting in the first year after vaccine introduction and continuing out, but changes in the vaccine types and changes in the NVTs balanced each other out, so this overall 50% reduction remained fairly consistent over the seven years.

How could this study contribute to policy making? 

I think that for policy makers (people that don’t think about PD everyday), I think their take-home point is that there’s about a 50% reduction in IPD in children and it lasts all the way out to seven years. There is SR; it exists. It’s a real phenomenon, but the proportion of disease caused by vaccine serotypes is greater than non-vaccine serotypes, so  the vaccines do have an overall impact on disease in children. I think that’s the first message.

The second is that you do see a herd effect in adults. There is a decrease in overall IPD in adults. It’s not as great as what is seen in children and it’s a bit delayed, but at least in the countries that introduced PCV, there was herd protection among adults – which could potentially have a big impact for countries, especially low-income countries, that have a lot of PD in adults. For a decision maker, hopefully that’s the message they get from this.

Are there any plans that you know of to build on the evidence provided by this study, and investigate SR in higher valency PCV?

There are some clear limitations to this study. The first limitation is that this study looked at the impact of the 7-valent PCV. That vaccine is no longer made.  Countries are introducing either 10-valent vaccine or 13-valent vaccine. Much of the SR that we saw occurring came from the six extra serotypes that were not in the 7-valent vaccine but are now in the higher valency vaccines, so we suspect that these higher valency vaccines would take care of a good deal of the SR that we saw. 

What we don’t know is: Are there other serotypes that are waiting in the wing that will cause SR in the same way? It would be important to follow countries as they introduce the higher valency vaccines and do a similar type of analysis several years out after the vaccine has been introduced. The problem is: we showed that you really need to go out to five or more years after vaccine introduction to see what exactly is going to happen to this dynamic process overtime. You can’t do the studies yet because the vaccines have just been introduced in the last couple of years so we need to wait, particularly for developing countries because they are just introducing.

The second major limitation is that the studies we looked at in our analysis were mostly from developed countries (North America, Europe, and Australia). There were a few indigenous populations in our data set – the Navajo and the Australian indigenous – which might be more like the low-income country populations, but not exactly the same. So, it is possible that in Africa and South Asia, where the epidemiology of PD is different, the results of the vaccine could potentially be different as well. It would be important to do a similar type of analysis in those countries. I think this type of analysis needs to be repeated in a few years, and it needs to be repeated in low-income settings that have the higher valency vaccines.

Do you have any other thoughts that you want to convey that we have not covered?

I think there is one thing, not based on the data itself, but just a comment. One of the things this study showed is the power of collaboration. Any single site would not be able to do this type of analysis, but they showed data from their own site and they made conclusions for their own site. But in order to understand an epidemiologic concept in a broader way that may vary site by site, you really need to have data from different places. The willingness of investigators to collaborate on this project, to lend their data to be looked at, to work together to make some sort of conclusion that was bigger than their own data was a really valuable exercise. This type of collaboration between sites is becoming more and more important, and we’re seeing more of it happening in the field of epidemiology. So, the example of doing a multi-site analysis, where sites give their data and they participate in the interpretation, was a valuable lesson and exercise.

This is the second in a series of profiles to help IVAC partners and friends get to know our team. This one features Chizoba Wonodi, an epidemiologist who leads IVAC’s Nigeria work. We caught up with Chizoba just before she made a big move back to Nigeria with her family. After living in Baltimore for 10 years, Chizoba will now represent IVAC in country, and she will dig deeper into efforts to work with the Nigerian government and other stakeholders to improve routine immunization and increase accountability.

Tell me a bit about your background and when you joined IVAC.

Before coming to Baltimore, I worked as a physician in Nigeria, concentrating mostly on adolescent sexual and reproductive health and HIV/AIDs prevention. I came to Johns Hopkins for my masters in public health and, after that, I went on to the DrPH (Doctor of Public Health) program, completing both programs as a Gates Institute Scholar. In 2006, in my third year of the doctorate program, a colleague introduced me to the PneumoADIP project that would later morph into IVAC. I thought the whole concept of accelerating access to vaccines was novel and cool and I wanted to be part of it. So I sought and got work as student research assistant with PneumoADIP.

When I graduated from my doctoral program in 2009, I joined the Hopkins faculty knowing I wanted to focus my work on Nigeria. My desire has always been to take what I learned at Hopkins and apply it to my home country. At IVAC, I have been able to do just that. My work is to support the Nigerian government in developing effective policies and programs to deliver life-saving vaccines to children. We work alongside many organizations, including the WHO and UNICEF, in helping the government build stronger immunization systems. We do this through policy and operations research, translating evidence to policy, and brokering or advocating for relevant interventions. Instituting accountability within the health system is also a big part of my work in Nigeria.

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Chizoba Wonodi with her niece. (Photo credit: Tyrone Shoots)

What inspires you to work in global health? 

I think the potential to make a difference on a large scale drew me to global health.  I came to this realization after medical school, when it was time to choose a clinical specialty. I considered pediatrics because I love children, but I didn’t have the affinity for one-on-one interventions when thousands were dying of preventable causes. I wanted to change things at a broader level. With public health, you can see how the policies and programs you implement affect large populations. 

What does it mean for you to be doing work to help Nigeria?

It is a privilege because not everybody has the opportunity to come to Johns Hopkins, a world-class institution, and receive training from the best in the field and work beside them.  It is wonderful to be able to take what I learned here back to Nigeria and try to make a difference there. However, it isn’t just about taking knowledge back, but also learning from the dynamic changes that have occurred in Nigeria.

Can you explain the kind of dynamic changes Nigeria has gone through?

There is more human capacity than before. In the last decade, a crop of globally educated public health revolutionaries – if I may call them that – have returned home with cutting-edge knowledge, skills, and attitudes. They’ve melded the global perspective with their local knowledge and sensibilities and have become a force for change. They resist doing business as usual and push for decisions to be evidence-based. They are forging partnerships in unusual places, demanding accountability, and focusing on results not just inputs.

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Chizoba Wonodi at the National Vaccine Summit in Abuja, Nigeria, April 2012. (Photo courtesy of Tyrone Gibson)

In the vaccine world to be exact, there has been a growing awareness of and greater access to new vaccines. For instance, Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine was introduced last year, hopefully next year, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) will follow. Although it took more than 15 years for these new vaccines to become available in the country, the momentum is shifting rapidly as more stakeholders acknowledge the importance of immunization. In April 2012, we saw a massive outpouring of support and promises at the National Vaccine Summit. Many hands are now on deck to help prop up the routine immunization system, and we are seeing positive results. Top among the donors is GAVI, who provides the single largest investment in routine immunization in Nigeria. As more partners come on board, the program space gets crowded and the pace quickens. It is all very exciting. However, one has to be nimble and responsive, to be relevant.

What has been your most rewarding or memorable experience at IVAC?

Seeing the impact of the policies we’ve helped influence result in access to new vaccines for children has been most rewarding. I remember when I came to the PneumoADIP and we were working on the introduction of PCV into developing countries. At that time PCV was considered too expensive for poor countries, but by getting countries to recognize the burden of pneumococcal disease, by convincing vaccine manufactures that there was a market beyond Europe and America, and by mobilizing the right financing, we (and others) helped accelerate PCV introduction into Africa and Asia.

Six years later, it is gratifying to see PCV introduction has outpaced earlier projections. This means many more children (in the millions) are being vaccinated and protected than we ever thought possible. There aren’t many opportunities where you get to contribute to change as big as that.  

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At the National Vaccine Summit in Nigeria (left to right): Dr. Ado Mohammad, Executive Director of the National Primary Health Care Development Agency; Dr. David Okello, former WHO Representative for Nigeria; and Dr. Chizoba Wonodi, Epidemiologist and Nigeria Projects Lead at IVAC. (Photo courtesy of Tyrone Gibson)

Wow, that sounds wonderful but also very demanding. What do you do in your free time to relax?

I like to cook. I watch the Food Network to learn new recipes. I love Asian food so I started learning to cook Chinese and now Korean food.

Speaking of cooking and eating, if you could have dinner with anyone – alive or dead – who would you pick and why?

I would choose Nelson Mandela. I don’t think there is anyone in the world as loved and as esteemed. I would like to feel the essence of the man and understand what makes him stand out so much. It would be a wonderful opportunity to learn from someone who has so much compassion, knowledge, and wisdom.

So through our conversation so far, it is obvious you are very proud to be Nigerian. What about Nigeria do you like best?

I love the people. We are proud and very happy people. In fact, there was a study that found Nigerians are the happiest people on earth. You wouldn’t think that given all our challenges and issues; but that is just who we are. We are very welcoming and very hospitable. And I love that when you meet a Nigerian, they proudly proclaim they are Nigerian.

What is your wish for Nigeria?

My immediate wish is that the 2015 elections will come and go flawlessly without any major upheavals. I also hope that the bloodshed in the north will stop so people can get back to living their lives. And I wish that Nigerian leaders would recognize and build our biggest resource – our human resources. Part of that includes making sure girls are educated. Once girls are educated, half the job is done in terms of alleviating poverty, adopting healthy behaviors, and nurturing the next generation.

Lastly, if you could visit anywhere in the world, where would that be and why?

Bhutan. I had a colleague that worked at the Hib Initiative who visited Bhutan. It is very difficult to go there, and you need to have a special reason to visit. My colleague went as a part of a vaccine delegation and she said the country is just pristine, the air is clean and clear, and you can hear birds chirping everywhere. I would love to see that country which has been unspoiled by modern life. 

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