In response to the growing concern about equity issues and their implications for overall development, WHO established the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) in 2005, which focused on the "social justice" or human rights arguments for health investments. CSDH investigated the factors involved in the so-called "social gradient in health", which refers to the large observable differences in health outcomes within and between countries that are determined by avoidable inequalities in the access to resources and power. CSDH aimed to further investigate the causes of health inequities, with a deliberate detachment from economic considerations, and provide advice on how to tackle them effectively. CSDH also reviewed evidence for action on a wide scope of interventions, many of which require intersectoral collaboration or advocacy.
This WHO resource book on the economics of social determinants of health and health inequalities seeks to begin to build a bridge between the two approaches by explaining, illustrating and discussing the economic arguments that could (and could not) be put forth to support the case for investing in the social determinants of health on average and in the reduction in socially determined health inequalities.
The resource book has two main objectives:
· to provide an overview and introduction into how economists would approach the assessment of the economic motivation to invest in the social determinants of health and socially determined health inequities, including what the major challenges are in this assessment;
· to illustrate the extent to which an economic argument can be made in favor of investment in three major social determinants of health areas: education, social protection, and urban development and infrastructure.
This volume presents an integrated epidemiologic, social, and economic analysis of the global epidemics of HIV among sex workers in low- and middle-income countries. The book provides a comprehensive review and synthesis of the available public health and social science data to characterize the nature, scope, and complexities of these epidemics. A community empowerment-based approach to HIV prevention, treatment, and care is outlined and demonstrated to be cost-effective across multiple settings, with a significant projected impact on HIV incidence among sex workers and transmission dynamics overall. The Global HIV Epidemics among Sex Workers seeks to assist governments, public health implementing agencies, donors, and sex worker communities to better understand and respond to the epidemics among a population facing heightened social and structural vulnerabilities to HIV. The book combines a systematic review of the global epidemiology of HIV among sex workers and in-depth case studies of the epidemiology, policy and programmatic responses and surrounding social contexts for HIV prevention, care and treatment in eight countries. The authors employ mathematical modeling and cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the potential country-level impact of a community empowerment-based approach to HIV prevention, treatment, and care among sex workers when taken to scale in four countries representing diverse sociopolitical contexts and HIV epidemics: Brazil, Kenya, Thailand, and Ukraine. In each setting, greater investment in prevention, treatment, and care for sex workers is shown to significantly reduce HIV. Together these findings underline the urgency of further global investment in comprehensive, human rights-based responses to HIV among sex workers.
This volume presents the first global economic analysis undertaken to explore the emerging epidemics of HIV among men who have sex with men in low- and middle-income countries. Using a scenario-based approach, the book systematically reviews the available data to investigate and characterize these epidemics and propose evidence-based and rightsaffirming responses. These responses, which are demonstrated here to be cost-effective, constitute both a public health priority and a clear human rights imperative. Written to help governments, public health agencies, donors, and communities better understand and respond to the HIV epidemics among these often hidden and stigmatized populations, The Global HIV Epidemics among MenWho Have Sex with Menbrings together reviews of epidemiology and the HIV prevention literature; a novel approach to evaluating interventions in prevention, care and treatment; and modeling, costing, and human rights assessments. The book uses a mathematical model to assess the potential country-level impact of interventions, focusing primarily on Kenya, Peru, Thailand, and Ukraine as examples. In all four countries, greater investment in prevention, treatment, and care for men who have sex with men is shown to improve overall HIV epidemic control.
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The Center is proud to release this new book, edited by Center director Chris Beyrer and Hank Pizer of Health Strategies Inc., and published by the Johns Hopkins University Press.
Aimed at a professional audience, the book is the first methods-oriented text to bring together population-based assessment tools and human rights investigations.
Leonard Rubenstein, director of Physicians for Human Rights and author of the book’s foreward, writes, “It deepens our understanding of the ‘doing’ of public health and human rights and demonstrates in concrete ways how that work can help us move toward a more just world.”
Edited by David Celentano and Chris Beyrer, the book brings a global perspective to the HIV pandemic by tracking epidemiological trends, correcting misperceptions, and examining the varied roles of local, government and international response in countries such as Brazil, Nigeria, the Russian Federation, Cambodia and India.
It offers the latest data on infection rates, details of risk reduction and care programs, analysis of evolving social attitudes regarding HIV and prospects for new forms of treatment.
Just released in September 2008 by Springer Verlag
Read the Lancet review
Touted as "a powerful testimony of the capacity to unite care with practical action," Dr. Beyrer's book traces the course of the HIV epidemic through seven Southeast Asian countries, systematically chronicling the cultural and political influences of this devasting disease. The book covers the broad spectrum of issues surrounding the HIV epidemic and takes a close look at country-specific, high-risk groups, prevention and treatment programs, policies, and public health response.