Faculty and Staff
The Center is made up of public health professionals, researchers, health workers, lawyers and advocates dedicated to improving health and promoting social justice through education, research and advocacy in accordance with the International Declaration of Health Rights.
Chris Beyrer, MD MPH
Director, Center for Public Health and Human Rights
Chris Beyrer MD, MPH, is the inaugural Desmond M. Tutu Professor in Public Health and Human Rights at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore,
Dr. Beyrer is the Director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Public Health and Human Rights (CPHHR), which he founded in 2004.
Dr. Beyrer is a Professor of Epidemiology, International Health, and Health, Behavior and Society at Johns Hopkins and serves as Director of JHU’s HIV Training Program in Epidemiology and Prevention Science. He is the current President of the International AIDS Society and co-Principal Investigator of the JHU Center for AIDS Research, CFAR. He currently serves as Co-Chair of the Epidemiology and Natural History Planning Group of the Office of AIDS Research of the U.S. NIH, and serves on scientific advisory committees for UNAIDS and WHO. He has extensive experience in conducting international collaborative research and training programs in HIV/AIDS and other infectious disease epidemiology, in infectious disease prevention research, HIV vaccine preparedness, in health and migration, and in health and human rights. Dr. Beyrer has done research health and human rights concerns in Thailand, Burma, China, India, South Africa, Malawi, Tanzania, Russia, Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan and is the author of over 240 scientific papers, 6 books and numerous other publications.
Stefan Baral, MD, MPH, MBA
Key Populations Program Director
Stefan Baral is a physician epidemiologist and an Associate Professor in the Department of Epidemiology at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health (JHSPH). Stefan completed his certification in Community Medicine as a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and Family medicine with the Canadian Council of Family Physicians. Stefan has also been involved in HIV epidemiology, prevention, and implementation research focused on the epidemiology, human rights contexts, and effective interventions for gay men and other men who have sex with men, transgender women, and female sex workers across Western and Central, and Southern Africa and parts of Asia with support from USAID, CDC, NIH, amfAR, and the Global Fund.
Michele R. Decker ScD, MPH
Women's Health & Rights Program Director
Michele R. Decker, is an Associate Professor in the Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. She directs the Women's Health & Rights Program of the Center for Public Health & Human Rights. A social epidemiologist by training, her research focuses on gender-based violence (e.g., sexual assault, intimate partner violence, sex trafficking), its prevention, and its implications for sexual and reproductive health (e.g., STI/HIV, unintended pregnancy). Much of this work involves marginalized populations including urban women, adolescents and those involved in transactional sex or sex work. Her work includes clinic-based intervention efforts to mitigate the health consequences of violence, as well as primary research to understand the mechanisms by which violence influences sexual health and HIV risk. She blends large-scale quantitative investigations with qualitative methods. She works domestically as well as in South and Southeast Asia, and Eastern Europe/Central Asia.
Leonard Rubenstein, JD
Conflict and Health Program Director
Leonard Rubenstein is a lawyer who has spent his career in human rights, and now focuses particularly on health and human rights, especially the protection of health in armed conflict, and the roles of health professionals in human rights. At Johns Hopkins he is core faculty of the Center for Public Health and Human Rights and the Berman Institute of Bioethics. Prior to coming to Johns Hopkins he served as Executive Director and then President of Physicians for Human Rights, as a Jennings Randolph Senior Fellow at the United States Institute of Peace, and as Executive Director of the Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law.
Mr. Rubenstein’s current work includes advancing protection of health facilities, patients, and health workers in situations of conflict, developing a screening tool to identify survivors of sexual and gender-based violence in refugee settings, and exploring ethical responsibilities of health professionals to advance human rights. Mr. Rubenstein founded and chairs the Safeguarding Health in Conflict Coalition.
Tonia Poteat, PhD
Assistant Professor, Epidemiology
Tonia Poteat is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Epidemiology at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Her research, teaching, and practice focus on LGBT health and HIV prevention, care, and treatment with particular attention to transgender health disparities. In addition to her academic work, Dr. Poteat is a certified HIV specialist by the American Academy of HIV Medicine and provides care for people living with HIV at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Prior to joining the faculty, she served as the Senior Advisor for Key Populations in the Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator.
Andrea L. Wirtz, PhD, MHS
Assistant Scientist, Epidemiology
Dr. Wirtz’s research is dedicated to the field of epidemiologic assessment of infectious disease and health among marginalized populations, including men who have sex with men, sex workers, transgender women, and refugees, displaced, and stateless populations. Dr. Wirtz has specific interest in developing measures and methods to assess risks, outcomes and effective health interventions for these populations. Research topics include epidemiological and intervention research related to violence, stigma, disparities in access to healthcare, and infectious disease, particularly HIV infection; implementation science methods for key populations; and capacity building among local, community-based partners. Dr. Wirtz has been involved in research in Russia, Kazakhstan, Thailand, Myanmar, Ethiopia, Malawi, Kenya, Somalia, Uganda, Cote d’Ivoire, Dominican Republic, Colombia, and Peru.
Emily Clouse, MScPH
Research Program Manager, Epidemiology
Emily Clouse is a Research Program Manager at the Center for Public Health and Human Rights. She is engaged in a variety of research projects that aim to measure the public health impacts of human rights violations. Her research interests focus on implementation of interventions to reduce the spread and impact of HIV/AIDS among key populations, as well as the access, availability, and delivery of health care in conflict settings. She works in Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and domestically. She joined the Center in 2011 after completing her MScPH at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
Program Administrator, Epidemiology
Kristin Hunt is the Program Administrator for the Center for Public Health and Human Rights’ and the AIDS International Training and Research Program. Kristin joined the Center in August 2014. Prior to this, she worked with the Infectious Disease group at the Center for American Indian Health in the Department of International Health. She served as the administrative coordinator of several clinical trials aimed at reducing the burden of respiratory diseases in Native American children. Kristin is an active member of Team Maryland of the Living Legacy Foundation, and facilitates the Leadership Program for the Johns Hopkins Children’s Center’s Camp All-Stars. For her commitment to volunteer work in the Baltimore community, she received the Martin Luther King Jr Community Service Award in 2013. She was invited as the keynote speaker for the National Kidney Foundation’s annual gala in 2012, and was a nominee for the American Kidney Fund’s Hero of Hope Award in 2014.
Sosthenes Charles Ketende, MSc., BSc.
Senior Biostatistician, Epidemiology
Sosthenes is currently a Senior Biostatistician in the Department of Epidemiology at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. Mr. Ketende has been a key member of the Key Populations Program (KPP) team since 2012. Mr Ketende has extensive experience in survey methods, questionnaire design and data management and analysis gained through his current position as well as his previous positions at the Center for Longitudinal Studies, University of London, London, England and, at Ifakara Health Institute in Morogoro and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Carl Latkin, PhD
Professor Health, Behavior and Society, Epidemiology
HIV prevention and care among disadvantaged populations, domestic and international approaches to behavior change, social and personal network analysis, neighborhood factors and health behaviors, injection drug users, STIs, alcohol, harm reduction, mental health, social support, social context and risk behavior, integrating qualitative and quantitative methods.
Benjamin Liestman, MSPH
Senior Research Program Coordinator, Epidemiology
Benjamin Liestman is a Senior Research Coordinator with the Center for Public Health and Human Rights based in Dakar, Senegal. Benjamin received his MSPH in International Health from Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and a BS in Biology from the University of Minnesota. His research interests include HIV epidemiology, human rights, stigma mitigation, implementation science, and capacity building as it concerns female sex workers, gay men and other men who have sex with men, and transgender women across Sub-Saharan Africa. Benjamin has experience working with key populations in numerous countries including Senegal, Burkina Faso, Togo, Cote d’Ivoire, Rwanda, Cameroon, and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Carrie Lyons, MPH
Senior Research Program Coordinator, Epidemiology
Carrie Lyons is a Senior Research Program Coordinator for the Key Populations Program in the Center for Public Health and Human Rights at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. She joined the CPHHR in 2014 and manages the implementation of research for the Key Populations Program. Carrie received her Master of Public Health in Biostatistical Methods for Public Health & Clinical Research from JHSPH. She has over 6 years of experience in international public health program and research implementation; and has over 4 years of experience working with key populations in the context of program implementation, service provision, or epidemiological research. Carrie’s research interests revolve around the intersection of HIV epidemiology and human rights violations affecting female sex workers and men who have sex with men.
Sandra Hsu Hnin Mon, MSPH
Senior Research Program Coordinator, Epidemiology
Hsu Hnin (Sandra) Mon is a Senior Research Program Coordinator with the Center for Public Health and Human Rights. Her research interests focus on the interplay of disease dynamics, human rights, and comparative politics in, but not limited to, Southeast Asia. Sandra is currently engaged in research assessing obstacles and innovations to the HIV care continuum for key populations in Myanmar and Thailand. She is also involved in the Center’s work on public health needs in humanitarian crises. She has extensive experience working in laboratory research, as well as with various NGOs and governmental health organizations in Myanmar. Sandra received her MSPH in Global Disease Epidemiology and Control from JHSPH, and a BA in Molecular Biology from Colgate University. She holds a certificate in Humanitarian Assistance through the Center for Refugee and Disaster Response at JHSPH.
Iliassou Mfochive Njindam MD, MPH
Senior Research Coordinator, Epidemiology
Dr. Njindam is a senior research coordinator based in the Key Populations Program at the Center for Public Health and Human Rights based in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Iliassou has extensive experience working with HIV prevention and treatment research for key populations across Western and Central and South East Asia. Before joining the Key Populations Program, Iliassou worked as a Research Associate in the Department of International Health also at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public health (JHSPH) supporting large scale HIV surveillance project among key populations in multiple sites across Afghanistan. Dr. Njindam is a medical doctor with clinical training completed in Niger, and also holds a Master’s of Science with a concentration in Infectious Diseases. Concurrently, Dr. Njindam served as a Post-doctoral fellow in the Department of International health at JHSPH.
Amrita Rao, ScM
Senior Research Program Coordinator, Epidemiology
Amrita Rao is a Senior Research Coordinator with the Center for Public Health and Human Rights. Amrita received her ScM in Epidemiology from Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and her BS in Human Biology Health and Society from Cornell University. Her research interests center on the intersection of sexual and reproductive health and HIV, and include prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, safe pregnancy, and female sex worker specific interventions. She has a strong commitment to furthering reproductive health rights and improving health outcomes for key populations through quality epidemiologic methods.
Sheree Schwartz, PhD, MPH
Assistant Scientist, Epidemiology
I am an HIV epidemiologist with extensive field and implementation experience in Southern Africa. The majority of my work is with women at high risk for HIV infection or women living with HIV, including female sex workers, pregnant women, and women in serodiscordant relationships. The focus of my research is optimization of women’s reproductive health services and HIV care, including safer conception services for HIV-affected couples trying to conceive in Sub-Saharan Africa. My on-going projects are primarily in South Africa where I have been working since 2008.
Senior Research Coordinator, Epidemiology
Gnilane Turpin is a research coordinator based in the Key Populations Program at the Center for Public Health and Human Rights. In 2014, Gnilane began working for the Program focused on HIV research studies in West and Central Africa with a focus on interventions aiming to reduce stigma against key populations, particularly female sex workers and men having sex with men. Before she engaged in international work, Gnilane has consistently engaged in work addressing structural risk determinants spending a number of years as a frontline counselor and outreach worker in violence against women and child assault prevention program. Gnilane is fluent in several languages with work experience being based in Senegal, Italy, Canada, and now at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. Throughout this work, Gnilane has demonstrated a commitment to a career in serving those most disenfranchised in the HIV response.
Susan Sherman, PhD
Professor, Health Behavior and Society and Population, Epidemiology, Family and Reproductive Health
Dr. Susan Sherman is a Professor in the Department of Epidemiology who focuses on improving the health of marginalized populations, particularly that of drug users and sex workers. Her research among drug users has largely focused on harm reduction, HIV prevention, economic development, and overdose prevention and response. She has been involved in several large, randomized, peer outreach intervention trials that has aimed to reduce HIV and related risk behaviors among drug users in Thailand, Baltimore, and Pakistan. She is also working to examine the effects of economic empowerment on reducing sexual risk behaviors among sex workers in India. She utilizes both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. She is also interested in the relationship between gender norms and sexual risk behaviors among adolescents.
Pamela Surkan, PhD, ScD
Assistant Professor, International Health, Health, Behavior and Society, Population, Family and Reproductive Health
My main research objective is to study how social determinants influence health. My interests are largely cross-disciplinary. They focus on examining interactions between social conditions and other factors that impact health, such as dietary behaviors and environmental exposures. To date, much of my work has been about the role of maternal mental health, social support and familial environment on early growth and childhood development. International collaborations have included work in Brazil, Sweden, Haiti, and Mexico.
Nick Thomson, PhD, MPH
Fellow, International AIDS Society-National Institute for Drug Abuse
Nick Thomson is a current IAS-NIDA Fellow at the Centre for Public Health and Human Rights based at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. Dr Thomson is also the program director of the Law Enforcement and Public Health program at the University of Melbourne’s School of Population and Global Health. Nick spent 12 years in SE Asia working with Johns Hopkins School of Public Health on research projects related to drug use and HIV in South East Asia. This experience resulted in him developing an interest in the role of the security sector (including its militaries and police forces) in global public health. He has spent the last few years engaging with the security sector in support of an enhanced understanding of its roles and obligations in global and public health. He is also on the UN expert advisory group on ending compulsory detention of drug users in South East Asia. His IAS-NIDA fellowship focuses on building multidisciplinary partnerships in response to HIV and HCV in complex settings.
David Celentano, ScD
Professor Epidemiology, Health, Behavior and Society, Health Policy and Management, International Health, School of Medicine
David Celentano, ScD '77, MHS '75, is Professor and Charles Armstrong Chair of the Department of Epidemiology, with joint appointments in International Health, Health, Society and Behavior and Medicine (School of Medicine). His research integrates behavioral science theory and research with epidemiology methods in the study of behavioral and social epidemiology. While originally trained in a chronic disease paradigm (alcoholism and cancer control), he began his research in HIV/AIDS and STDs in the early 1980s. He has worked on some of the major cohort studies (ALIVE, MACS) in HIV epidemiology, as well as conducted intervention research in the USA for heterosexual men and women, injection drug users, and young men who have sex with men.
Jason Farley, PhD, MPH, ANP-BC, FAAN, AACRN
Associate Professor, Community-Public Health (School of Nursing)
Jason Farley is an associate professor at the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing and a nurse practitioner in the Division of Infectious Diseases within the Johns Hopkins AIDS Service. He holds adjunct faculty appointments at the University KwaZulu-Natal in Durban, South Africa and the University of Technology in Sydney, Australia. Dr. Farley's research seeks to optimize the prevention and management of HIV infection with a particular emphasis on drug-resistant tuberculosis among persons with HIV in international settings. His work is supported through NIH, CDC-SA, HRSA, Global Fund for AIDS, TB and Malaria as well as many others. Through coordination and capacity development of an international team, Dr. Farley has led the development and scale-up of a program to enhance diagnosis, linkage, and retention in care for patients with drug-resistant TB/HIV co-infection. This includes the development of a smartphone application known as miLINC. In the U.S., he is a leader in pre-exposure prophylaxis, working with the Baltimore City Health Department to implement a citywide initiative to increase access and retention of PrEP services in men who have sex with men. Through this effort, Dr. Farley has led the development of a smartphone application known as PrEPme, which will be implemented across Maryland. He is the Johns Hopkins HIV Prevention Trials Network site leader within the Hopkins School of Medicine and founder of the REACH Institute of the School of Nursing. He is president of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care (ANAC), the world's largest HIV-focused nursing organization.
Katherine Footer, MSc
Assistant Scientist, Epidemiology
Katherine is a Research Associate in the Department of Epidemiology and Barrister at law in England and Wales. Her focus is on the intersection of public health, human rights, and social justice with a specific focus on improving the health of cis and trans female sex workers, and other marginalized populations. Her research on sex workers is focused on harm reduction, HIV prevention, and understanding the structural drivers for HIV risk. She is presently overseeing the first known cohort study of sex workers in the United States setting, alongside Dr. Susan Sherman here in Baltimore City. Her international work also includes advancing protection of health facilities, patients, and health workers in situations of conflict.
Nancy E. Glass, PhD, MPH, RN, FAAN
Professor, Associate Dean for Research, Associate Director, Johns Hopkins Center for Global Health
Nancy Glass is a nurse clinician, researcher, cross-discipline bridge builder, and educator. Her research and practice expertise in public health, health disparities, and intimate partner violence reflect the focus of the School of Nursing and Johns Hopkins University on global health threats, particularly in developing countries. Her research centers on clinical care and intervention in the areas of violence prevention and health disparities. With funding from the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, she is conducting three major studies on intimate partner violence. As an associate director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Global Health—a program that bridges the international work of the university's schools of Nursing, Medicine, and Public Health—and an ambassador for ResearchAmerica's Paul G. Rogers Society for Global Health Research, Dr. Glass serves as a global health scientist-advocate. She also is a past-president of the Nursing Network on Violence Against Women, International. In all her global outreach roles, Dr. Glass works to educate policymakers, thought leaders, the media, and the public about the importance of global health research.
Nancy Kass, ScD
Professor, Health Policy and Management
Nancy Kass, ScD, is the Phoebe R. Berman Professor of Bioethics and Public Health, in the Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Deputy Director for Public Health in the Berman Institute of Bioethics. Dr. Kass received her BA from Stanford University, completed doctoral training in health policy from the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, and was awarded a National Research Service Award to complete a postdoctoral fellowship in bioethics at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University. Dr. Kass conducts empirical work in bioethics and health policy.
Current research projects examine ethics for a learning healthcare system including quality improvement and comparative effectiveness, informed consent in randomized trials, ethics issues that arise in international health research and ethics and public health preparedness. Dr. Kass teaches the Bloomberg School of Public Health’s course on U.S. and International Research Ethics and Integrity, is the director of the School’s PhD program in bioethics and health policy, and is the director of the Johns Hopkins Fogarty African Bioethics Training Program. Dr. Kass is an elected member of the Institute of Medicine and a Fellow of the Hastings Center.
Deanna Kerrigan, PhD
Associate Professor, Health, Behavior and Society, International Health
Dr. Kerrigan is an Associate Professor at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. She has been engaged in public health intervention research with a focus on the study of social and structural factors influencing the adoption of health-promoting behaviors related to HIV prevention and care since 1995. A significant portion of her research has focused on evaluating the role and impact of environmental-structural factors related to HIV outcomes among marginalized groups, including female sex workers, people living with HIV and disadvantaged youth. She recently directed a large-scale, global HIV prevention operations research portfolio funded by USAID, Project Search: Research to Prevention (R2P). She is the Co-Director of the Prevention Core of the Johns Hopkins Center for AIDS Research (CFAR). Her current work focuses on Tanzania, the Dominican Republic, Brazil and Baltimore. She previously served as a Program Officer in the area of Sexuality, Reproductive Health and Rights for the Ford Foundation in Brazil.
Shruti Mehta, PhD
Primary research interests include working with hard-to reach populations to understand the epidemiology, natural and treated history of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV/HCV co-infection; Populations of interest include injection drug users and men who have sex with men as well as their sexual partners in both Baltimore and international settings, particularly India; Special interest in identifying and overcoming barriers to care and treatment of HIV and hepatitis C virus among such populations.
Luke Mullany , PhD
Professor, International Health
My overall research aims to increase infant and neonatal survival in low-resource settings through the development of effective, low-cost interventions that may be implemented at the community level. Current activities include investigation of sunflower seed oil as a topical emollient therapy for reduced infection and mortality, mode(s)/mechanism of action of sunflower seed oil and skin barrier function and integrity, expanding the use of oxytocin for prevention and treatment of PPH beyond facility deliveries, uterotonic use in home and facility deliveries in South Asia, etiology of neonatal infections, role of community based workers in neonatal/maternal health.
I am also interested in the impact of human rights violations on population health, and the application of epidemiological tools to investigate this relationship.
Jean Nachega, MD
I am an Infectious Diseases Internist trained in Epidemiology, Health Economics, Tropical Public Health & Medicine. My research, teaching, and professional activities include planning, design, monitoring, and evaluation of clinical trials, cohort studies & programs for prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS & Tuberculosis.
Jill Owczarzak, PhD
Assistant Professor, Health, Behavior and Society
I am a medical anthropologist with expertise in qualitative research methods, exploring the influence of cultural, social, and political forces on health disparities, and the ways in which frontline service providers use evidence-based HIV prevention interventions. I am currently a Dual Principal Investigator of a 5-year NIH-funded research project that explores the effects of organizational characteristics and implementation fidelity on the effectiveness of the HIV prevention intervention SISTA. I am also the Principal Investigator of a 4-year, NIH-funded research project that will explore HIV prevention intervention development and implementation among nongovernmental organizations that work with intravenous drug users in Ukraine. In addition, I have also served as an investigator on several other research projects, including a 5-year, multi-site research project that aimed to develop a social network-based HIV prevention intervention for black men who have sex with men (BMSM), a project exploring supportive housing programs, drug use, and HIV risk (R01-DA024578-01), and a project that explored the use of advanced communication technology methods in science-to-service dissemination among nongovernmental organizations in Eastern Europe (R01 MH079730). As a member of these research teams, I have worked on mixed methods research projects that involve program development, implementation, and evaluation.
I have also trained research staff, current and past postdoctoral fellows, graduate students, and other faculty in qualitative research methods and data analysis. I have worked with and mentored several postdoctoral fellows, junior faculty, and doctoral students to mentor and train them in the integration of qualitative methods into research projects on a broad range of topics related to HIV and its prevention. I also collaborate with faculty in the design and implementation of research projects that incorporate qualitative methods and perspectives.
Courtland Robinson, PhD
Associate Professor, International Health, Population, Family and Reproductive Health
W. Courtland Robinson, Ph.D. is an Assistant Professor at the Center for Refugee and Disaster Response at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland. He has been involved in refugee research and policy analysis since 1979. The non-governmental organizations and academic institutions with whom Dr. Robinson has worked include the Indochina Refugee Action Center, Save the Children, World Education, the U.S. Committee for Refugees, the Asian Research Center for Migration, and Mercy Corps. He is the author of numerous studies on refugee issues, particularly in Asia. His book, Terms of Refuge: The Indochinese Exodus and the International Response (1998, Zed Books), was selected by the Humanitarian Times as one of the ten best books for 1999. His current research activities include famine and distress migration in North Korea, demographic assessment methods in complex emergencies, and development-induced displacement.
Sonal Singh MD, MPH
Assistant Professor, Health Policy and Management
Dr. Singh is a physician-scientist with a commitment to transdisciplinary research. His research aims to translate evidence into sound public policy and clinical care for patients by ensuring that stakeholders are well informed about treatment choices to make evidence based decisions. He has epidemiologic expertise in the conduct of rigorous systematic reviews, observational studies, multi-criteria decision analysis and benefit-risk assessment of drugs. Dr. Singh’s international portfolio includes developing a new scale to measure human rights violations among men who have sex with men in Nepal. He has been involved in multiple research projects including studies of sexual violence against women and a new scale to measure attack on health workers workers in conflict settings. He teaches courses in systematic reviews, evidence based medicine and human rights methods. As a general internist with an outpatient practice, Dr. Singh provides regular clinical care to patients.
Sarah Peitzmeier, MSPH
Sarah Peitzmeier is a doctoral candidate in the department of Population, Family, and Reproductive Health. Sarah conducted data collection for the INSPIRE study and is analyzing data to explore the potential opportunities and challenges for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis expansion among drug-using sex workers in Baltimore. She also conducted participant observation with Baltimore police officers as part of an ethnographic assessment of the culture around the policing of sex work for the SAPPHIRE study. Her dissertation analyzes the independent and synergistic contributions of client, police, intimate partner, and pimp-perpetrated violence to HIV risk among sex workers in Russia.