Malaria is a life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by mosquitoes. It is by far the world's most important tropical parasitic disease, killing more people than any other communicable disease except tuberculosis. It is responsible for over 300 to 500 million clinical cases and more than a million deaths each year. Children and pregnant women bear a majority of the disease burden. Malaria is one of the major public health challenges undermining development in the poorest countries in the world.
There are at least 45 candidate vaccines globally in preclinical stages of research and development, and 26 candidates have advanced into clinical trials. The malaria parasite is a complex organism with a complicated life cycle. Its antigens are constantly changing. Scientists do not yet totally understand the complex immune responses that protect humans against malaria. Several vaccine strategies are being explored. These include:
- Inoculation with a dosage equal to that of 1,000 irradiated mosquitoes
- Vaccines that target one or more circumsporozoite protein (CSP) antigens
- Pre-erythrocytic vaccines based on CSP, such as the recombinant adenovirus serotype-vectored CSP vaccine and the recombinant
- Hepatitis B S antigen CSP vaccine with AS02A as an adjuvant
- Induction of immunity to the blood stage
- Prevention of the adherence of the parasite to venules and the placenta
- Transmission-blocking vaccines
World Health Organization
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Malaria Vaccine Initiative
Click here to read about vaccine trials at the CIR for malaria.
Here is a link to information about participating in malaria vaccine studies at the CIR.