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Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

T

Team building

Two words, no hyphen.

Advocacy and team building requires vision and leadership.

Telephone numbers

Usually the 1- prefix is dropped from phone numbers where the area code is included; include the 1- only in publications intended for an international audience. For telephone extensions, use ext. or x , followed by a space and the five-digit number.

Do not use parentheses for area codes. Use hyphens. For example, 410-955-6878.

That, which

Use that when the clause it introduces is essential to the meaning of the sentence; do not use commas to set off the clause. Use which when the relative clause is not essential to the sentence (i.e., the sentence still makes sense if the clause is removed); use commas to set it off.

Wild geese that are molting are usually unable to fly. [Here, that is used and the clause is not set off with commas because the clause is essential—the sentence would make no sense if the clause were removed.]
Wild geese, which migrate twice a year, fly high. [Here, which is used and the clause is set off with commas because the sentence still makes sense without the clause.]

Pick up the marbles that are blue. [The marbles are of different colors—pick up only the blue ones.]
Pick up the marbles, which are blue. [Pick up all the marbles, which, by the way, all happen to be blue.]

Third World—see Nondiscriminatory Language

Time of day

a.m., p.m.
a.m. and p.m. should be lowercase, have periods, and be preceded by one space.

11 a.m. (NOT: 11a.m.)

Hours and minutes
Use a colon to separate the hour from the minutes. The colon and minutes are not necessary for even-hour times.

11 a.m. (NOT: 11:00 or 11:00 a.m.)
BUT: 3:30 p.m., 5:30–8:30 p.m.
from 5:30 to 8:30 p.m. (NOT: from 5:30–8:30 p.m.)

Noon, midnight
Noon and midnight stand alone. Do not write 12 noon or 12 p.m. or 12 midnight or 12 a.m.

ET, EDT
The abbreviations for Eastern Standard Time (ET) and Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) should be in all-caps without periods.

Time, day, and date
For events, always use the time-day-date sequence.

The committee will meet at 3 p.m., Monday, September 23.

Titles and names—Capitalization

When title precedes name
Capitalize a title preceding a name if a person is addressed by that title; otherwise do not capitalize.

Dean Klag
Professor John Baldwin
treasurer William Snow Jr.

Titles used alone or following a name
Do not capitalize titles used alone, following a name, or modified.

The dean said ...
Dr. Brody, president of the university, ...

Titles, courtesy

Use courtesy titles, except in press releases
Except in press releases, School style makes use of courtesy titles, or honorifics, on second reference (generally use Dr., Mr., and Ms., though female sources may sometimes prefer Miss or Mrs.). Courtesy titles are followed by periods.

First mention  and subsequent mentions
On first mention of a faculty member, use the full academic title (assistant professor, associate professor, professor, visiting professor), along with the person’s name. Subsequent references may refer to Dr. Smith or Prof. Smith.

John Smith, PhD, assistant professor, Mental Hygiene, gave the lecture. Dr. Smith apologized for being late.

Toward, towards 

Use toward.
Only use towards in a quotation, as in
 W. B. Yeats's poem, "Slouching towards Bethlehem." Otherwise, as per the Chicago Manual of Style, use toward.

Travelers' diarrhea

We spell it travelers' diarrhea.

We will leave "travellers' diarrhoea," and versions thereof, to the British.

Trustee(s) emeritus

Singular = trustee emeritus
Plural = trustees emeritus

Council on Education for Public Health

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