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Martin L. Stephens, PhD

Director, Evidence-Based Toxicology

Senior Research Associate

Departmental Affiliation(s):

Environmental Health Sciences

Center & Institute Affiliation(s):

Contact Information

Baltimore , Maryland


Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration:
AltTox: Non-animal Methods for Toxicity Testing:
AltTox: Non-animal Methods for Toxicity Testing:


PhD , The University of Chicago , 1984


My current efforts are directed primarily to establishing the discipline of evidence-based toxicology (EBT) by translating the principles and tools of evidence-based medicine to toxicity testing.  The nascent practice of EBT will focus primarily on assessing test methods and testing strategies.  Through the work of our EBT Collaboration (the parallel to the Cochrane Collaboration), these efforts will expand the means of test method validation and devise objective means of evaluating testing strategies.  Such work will facilitate the adoption of new testing methods based on perturbations of biological pathways, as envisioned in the National Research Council (NRC) report on “Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century.” 

Honors and Awards

Recognition Award, Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, Johns Hopkins University

The Doerenkamp-Zbinden Prize, Doerenkamp-Zbinden Foundation


Evidence-based toxicology, alternative methods, animals in research, 21st century toxicology

  • Stephens, M.L., Barrow, C., Andersen, M.E., Boekelheide, K., Carmichael, P.L., Holsapple, M.P., Lafranconi, M. (2012).  Accelerating the development of 21st century toxicology: Outcome of a Human Toxicology Project Consortium workshop.  Toxicological Sciences 125:327-334.

  • Stephens, M.L. 2010.  An animal protection perspective on 21st century toxicology. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 13: 291-298.

  • Krewski, D., Acosta Jr., D., Andersen, M., Anderson, H., Bailar III, J. C., Boekelheide, K., Brent, R., Charnley, G., Cheung, V. G., Green Jr., S., Kelsey, K.T., Kerkvliet, N.I., Li, A.A., McCray, L., Meyer, O., Patterson, R.D., Pennie, W., Scala, R. A., Solomon, G.M., Stephens, M., Yager, J., Zeise, L. and Staff of Committee on Toxicity Testing and Assessment of Environmental Agents. 2010. Toxicity testing in the 21st century: A vision and a strategy. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 13: 51-138.

  • Adler, S., Bicker, G., Bigalke, H., Bishop, C., Blumel, J., Dressler, D., Fitzgerald, J., Gessler, F, Heuschen, H., Kegel, B., Luch, A., Milne, C., Pickett, A., Ratsch, H., Ruhdel, I., Sesardic, D., Stephens, M., Stiens, G., Thornton, P.D., Thurmer, R., Vey, M, Spielmann, H., Grune, B., and Liebsch, M. 2010. The current scientific and legal status of alternative methods to the LD50 Test for botulinum neurotoxin potency testing. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 38: 315-330.

  • Gomez, L.M., Conlee, K.M., & M.L. Stephens. 2010. Noncompliance with Public Health Service (PHS) Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: An exploratory analysis.  Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 13: 123-136.