Alvaro Munoz, PhD
615 N. Wolfe Street, E7648
Baltimore , Maryland 21205
PhD , Stanford University , 1980
Dr. Muñoz received his MS (1977) and PhD (1980) degrees in statistics from Stanford University. From 1980-1985, he was an instructor at the Channing Laboratory at Harvard Medical School. In 1986 Dr. Muñoz was appointed to the post of assistant professor in the Department of Epidemiology, with a joint appointment in the Department of Biostatistics at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. He was promoted to associate professor in 1987 and to full professor in 1993. He was awarded an additional joint appointment in the Department of Environmental Health Sciences in 1994.
Dr. Muñoz has been intimately involved in large cohort studies of the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS and since 2003, in a nation-wide cohort study of children with chronic renal insufficiency. His research interest is in statistical methods in epidemiology, particularly survival and longitudinal data analysis.
In the late 1980s, Dr. Muñoz contributed methods to combine seroprevalent and incident cohorts for the characterization of the incubation period of AIDS. In the early 90s, Dr. Muñoz and collaborators documented the prognostic information of CD4 cell count on the development of PCP, and their work was instrumental in the issuing of Public Health Services guidelines regarding individuals who should receive prophylaxis for PCP.
In the mid 1990s, Dr. Muñoz directed the analysis to characterize the joint prognostic information provided by HIV-RNA and CD4 cell count. This collaboration provided the basis for the establishment of guidelines for the treatment of HIV-infected individuals with highly active antiretroviral therapies. In the latter part of the 1990s, Dr. Muñoz concentrated his efforts on the treated as opposed to the natural history of HIV infection. In this context, he and his collaborators characterized the frequency of therapy usage; who is more likely to receive therapy; and the impact of therapy on the incidence of clinical outcomes and in the trajectories of markers of disease progression. Dr. Muñoz's work has served to link cohort studies to public health by providing methods to assess treatment effectiveness at the individual and population levels.
Dr. Muñoz continues to provide leadership in the design of new studies, data analysis, and methodological research in collaboration with faculty and staff of the Department of Epidemiology. The methodological developments achieved by Dr. Muñoz and his collaborators in the context of cohorts of HIV infected individuals have been presented in Epidemiologic Review (1998;20:1-14) dedicated to cohort studies, co-edited by John Samet and A. Muñoz. Experience and methods derived from research initiatives are part of two courses taught by Dr. Muñoz and collaborators: Advanced Methods for the Design and Analysis of Cohort Studies; and Methods and Applications of Cohort Studies.
Since 2003, Dr. Muñoz has been the principal investigator of the data coordinating center for the Chronic Kindney Disease in Children Cohort Study (CKID). The study pioneered the implentation of direct measures of Glomerular Filtration Rate in large epidemiological studies. In 2011, Dr. Muñoz and collaborators published simple methods to measure kindney function in diverse populations and proposed methods for the analysis of its change over time based on Generalized Gamma methods.
Since 1994, Dr. Muñoz has been the leader of the Biostatistics Epidemiology Core of the Program Project "Molecular Biomarkers for Environmental Carcinogens," in collaboration with faculty in the Department of Environmental Health Sciences. As part of this collaboration, Dr. Muñoz and collaborators have coordinated several clinical trials and case-control studies conducted in China on putative chemopreventive agents against liver cancer.
In addition, Dr. Muñoz has directed, since 1995, an Epidemiological/Biostatistical Center for postmarketing surveillance programs to monitor prescription drug abuse in the United States.
Honors and Awards
Golden Apple for Excellence in Teaching, 2003, 2006, 2010
Advising, Mentoring and Teaching Award (AMTRA) from Student Assembly, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, 1995, 1996, 1998
Fellow, American College of Epidemiology, 1997
Fellow, American Statistical Association, 1999
Member, Delta Omega-Alpha Chapter, Honorary Public Health Society, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, 1995
Statistics in Epidemiology, Cohort Studies, Survival Analysis, Analysis of Longitudinal Data, Kidney Disease, Infectious Diseases, Biomarkers, Post marketing surveillance
Muñoz A, Carey V, Schouten JP, Segal M, Rosner B. A parametric family of correlation structures for the analysis of longitudinal data. Biometrics 1992;48:733-42.
Muñoz A, Carey V, Taylor JMG, Chmiel JS, Kingsley L, VanRaden M, Hoover DR. Estimation of time since exposure for a prevalent cohort. Stat Med 1992; 11:939-52
Muñoz A, Xu J. Models for the incubation period of AIDS and variations according to age and period. Stat Med 1996;15:2459-73.
Muñoz A, Sunyer J. Comparison of semiparametric and parametric survival models for the analysis of bronchial responsiveness. Am J Respir and Critical Care Medicine 1996;154:S234-S239.
Muñoz A, Sabin C, Phillips AN. The incubation period of AIDS. AIDS 1997;11:(Suppl 1):S69-S76.