PhD, New York University, 1979
MS, New York University, 1977
My current interest is in the integrity of animal models for human disease, from scientific, ethical and translational perspectives. Included in this interest is the need to implement appropriate care and welfare guidelines for animals used in research to ensure that the animal models are providing scientifically valid data that can be used to extrapolate to human disease. Intrinsic to this process is the understanding of animal behavior, specifically the necessity for animals to express species-specific behaviors in a captive environment. From 2000-2010, I was the Director of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) at the National Academy of Sciences where I oversaw the development of expert reports related to the use of animals in research, including the 8th Edition of The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. When I rejoined the Hopkins faculty in 2010, I continued with my efforts to bring scientists and veterinarians together to share information and encourage research into the welfare of laboratory animals. Included in these activities were two workshops devoted to the use of dogs in biomedical research and testing, several workshops on refinement of laboratory animal practices (both in the US and Europe), and most recently a series of workshops focused on facilitating the social housing of social laboratory animal species. My work, both at ILAR and at Hopkins has emphasized a need for international cooperation and harmonization in the area of laboratory animal care. I will be co-chairing the 2017 World Congress on Animals and Alternatives in the Life Sciences, which will have as one focus the appropriate use of animal models.